Going Kosher – What Makes it Kosher – Chapter 3

By: Rabbi Amiram Markel


As stated above, all the kosher laws were either commanded by G-d at Sinai and incorporated in the Torah along with the other mitzvoth; or are oral traditions which go back to Moses, who received them from G-d; or were ordained by the sages for the purpose of safeguarding and strengthening their observance and with health considerations in mind. Kosher (כשר) means, “That which is fit[1] to eat according to biblical dietary law”. Now, though the kosher dietary law is comprised of many diverse subjects, nonetheless, since they chiefly revolve around the consumption of meat, we will, therefore, begin by explaining the requirements of kosher meat. Before meat may be consumed several prerequisites must be fulfilled:

Kosher and Non-Kosher Animals

Only the meat of certain animals may be consumed.[2] The Torah specifies the signs by which to recognize kosher animals.[3] They all are herbivores which chew their cud (That is, they must be ruminators) and have completely split hooves.[4] Of the domesticated animals, this includes cows, sheep and goats.[5] Kosher undomesticated animals include the addax, antelope, bison, buffalo, deer, gazelle, ibex, and reindeer,[6] as well as others too numerous to enumerate here. (You are not likely to find them in your neighborhood grocery store.) The Torah also lists four animals that only have one of these characteristics, but not the other.[7] They include the pig, which has split hooves but does not chew its cud, and the camel, hare and rock-badger, which chew but do not have split hooves.[8] These animals are not kosher.

It is interesting to note that though much of the world; such as Australia, North America, South America, Antarctica and great portions of Africa, Asia and Europe, were as yet, undiscovered when the Torah was written, the Torah, nonetheless, emphatically states that these four species possess only one kosher characteristic and not the other. The Talmud[9] concludes that since only these species were named, no other such species exist. Incredibly, though tens of thousands of previously unknown creatures have since been discovered, categorized and studied, not a single additional one fits this description. This, itself, is ample proof of the Divine authorship of the Torah. Only the Creator Himself could know with certainty that no other such animals exist.

Indeed, the Malbim writes[10] that had a human being, such as Moses, authored the Torah himself; he would never have risked destroying his credibility by listing these four animals. He could simply have stated that onlyanimals that possess both these signs are kosher and left it at that. That would have been sufficient information for us to recognize the kosher animals and to reject the non-kosher ones, including those which possess only one of the two signs.

Kosher and Non-Kosher Fowl

The Torah lists twenty-four families of non-kosher birds[11] which, according to modern scientific classification, include thousands of known species and sub-species. Some of the non-kosher birds listed in the Torah are the barn owl, bat, cormorant, eagle, falcon, gull, hare, hawk, hoopoe, ibis, kite, magpie, ossifrage, osprey, ostrich, owl, pelican, raven, stork, and vulture. Though it is a mammal, the Torah includes the bat in the list because it uses different criteria for classification than modern science. The word “Auf” – עוף in Hebrew, which is usually translated as fowl, actually means anyflying creature.

Though the Torah does not specify the signs by which to recognize a kosher bird,[12] as it does with other animals, nonetheless, the rabbis[13] gave us four general indicators by which to differentiate between kosher and non-kosher fowl.[14] Not all kosher birds possess all four indicators and some non-kosher birds may possess one of them, therefore, they are general guidelines rather than sure signs. Two of these signs are primary indicators of the kosher status of the bird and two are secondary.

The two primary indicators are:

a) The muscular wall of the gizzard of a kosher bird may be easily peeled off by hand, whereas the gizzard of a non-kosher bird will not peel easily.[15]

b) Non-kosher birds tend to be birds of prey that hunt for their food. Therefore, they will use their claws to capture and hold their prey as they devour it.[16] Kosher birds do not eat in this fashion.

The secondary indicators are:

a) Kosher birds will tend to have three toes in the front and one extra toe in the back, whereas non-kosher birds may have two, three or four toes. They may have three toes in the front and one in the back, two toes in the front and two in the back or all four toes in the front.[17]

b) Many kosher birds will possess a crop which non-kosher birds do not have. This is a pouch-like organ on the wall of the esophagus which temporarily stores undigested food before it goes to the stomach to become fully digested. Ducks and geese do not have crops. However, since they possess the other three indicators of a kosher bird they are kosher.[18]

Since the four above indicators are not of biblical origin and it would be extremely difficult to determine the kosher status of all the thousands of bird species, therefore, generally, only birds that are known to be kosher by tradition are consumed.[19] The most common birds that are traditionally accepted as being kosher are:

a) All members of the chicken family.

b) Domesticated ducks.

c) Domesticated geese

d) Pigeons and doves

e) Domesticated turkeys[20]

Geese that have been forced fed by ramming a metal funnel down their throat could lose their kosher status because this method of feeding can puncture the esophagus. This would render the goose a treifah, which, as will be explained, means that the animal has a physical condition which will lead to its death.

Prohibition of Eating Neveilah or Treifah

It is forbidden to eat the meat of an animal that died by itself or was not slaughtered in accordance to the laws of Shechitah[21] (kosher slaughter). Such an animal is called a neveilah[22] (נבילה).  Moreover, the meat may not come from an animal that has some kind of physical condition that will cause its death.[23] If it is diseased, has a birth defect, is mortally wounded, has a defective organ or limb which will lead to its demise, or is otherwise close to death,[24] either due to frailty, old age or sickness; that animal is called a treifah[25] (טריפה) and is forbidden to eat.[26]

In his magnum opus, Mishneh Torah, Maimonides gives a complete list of seventy defects that render an animal treifah.[27] Only the symptoms mentioned there render it so and no others. If veterinary science would determine that an animal will imminently die from different causes, this would have no bearing on the kosher status of an animal.[28] In the same vein, if science would determine that a defect which is included in the list is not so serious and does not indicate imminent death, the animal would still be considered to be a treifah and would be forbidden.[29]

Kosher Slaughter

The animal must be slaughtered in the proper manner as prescribed by Halacha.[30] This is done by a highly trained certified ritual-slaughterer (shochet). The certification for ritual-slaughter is called “Kabbala” (קבלה). In order to receive kabbala a person must be both learned in Torah and G-d fearing.[31] Nowadays, many people learn to be a shochet as a post-rabbinical study after they have already received rabbinical ordination (Semichah). To receive Kabbala, a person must:[32]

a) Study all the laws of shechitah (slaughter) until he is thoroughly familiar with them and review them on a regular basis. Even a shochet with years of experience is required to review these laws regularly.

b) Practice properly sharpening the knife on a whetstone until it is perfectly sharp and free of all nicks and imperfections.

c) Master the skill of checking the blade for perfect sharpness and any imperfections. This is done by sliding the thumbnail up and down the length of the blade. Sensitivity must be developed to notice even the tiniest nicks.

d) Learn all the techniques of proper slaughter from a qualified, experienced shochet.

e) Successfully slaughter at least three animals in close succession without hesitation or squeamishness.

f) Be tested on all the above by a recognized rabbinical authority. Most people begin with slaughtering chickens and only later graduate to slaughtering larger animals, such as goats and sheep and finally beef cattle.

The Slaughtering Knife

A special knife, called a chalef (חלף) is used for kosher slaughter. The blade must be at least twice as long as the neck-width of the animal being slaughtered.[33] For chickens it is approximately from 3 to 6 inches long and for larger animals it may be as long as 18 inches. To insure that the blade is exposed throughout the cut and that it slices, rather than tears, the blade is rectangular in shape. It must be razor sharp and have no nicks in it,[34] whatsoever.

Until a little over two hundred years ago most chalefs where made of wrought or cast iron blades. Then, the leader of the Chassidic movement, Rabbi Dovber of Mezeritch, the “Great Maggid”, introduced the use of chalefs made of honed steel with a tapered blade. This innovation instigated a great outcry amongst the opponents of the Chassidim, and they used it as justification to ban the consumption of all Chassidic slaughter, declaring it to be “non-kosher”. However, today the use of high quality tapered stainless steel blades is universal, not only in Chassidic circles, but by all Jews, everywhere.

Five General Rules of Slaughter

There are five basic rules which apply to the slaughter itself.[35] These were given to Moses by G-d at Sinai. They are:

a)  Shehiyah (שהייה).There should not be any pause or hesitation in the movement of the knife during slaughter.[36]

b)  Derisah (דרסה). The blade must slide smoothly without pressing down on the neck.[37]

c)  Chaladah (חלדה). The blade must be exposed throughout the slaughter; therefore, before the slaughter of sheep, the wool must either be removed or brushed apart. If mud is encrusted on the neck of cattle, it must be washed off. The feathers of poultry must be pushed aside.[38]

d)  Hagramah (הגרמה).  The cut should neither be too high or toolowon the neck. Rather, it should be in the central area of the trachea and esophagus.[39] Moreover, care must be taken to avoid cutting the spine.[40]

e) Ikoor (עיקור). Great care must be taken that the blade slices rather than tears the trachea and esophagus. Therefore, the blade must be perfectly sharp and contain no nicks, which could cause tearing.[41] In order to assure this, the knife is checked before and after slaughter.[42] Besides these five above mentioned rules being essential requirements of kosher slaughter itself, they also assure that the slaughter is done in the most humane way possible. Thus they are also in accord with the mitzvah against causing undue pain to animals.[43]

Draining the Carcass of Blood

The Torah forbids[44] the consumption[45] of blood.[46] Therefore, the carcass is drained of its blood. In many slaughterhouses the carcass is hung upside-down to facilitate this.

Post-Mortem Inspection

Following the slaughter, the animal is checked to ascertain whether it is a treifah or not. (As mentioned above, a treifah is an animal which has a terminal condition and would die even without being slaughtered.[47]) This is done by checking the lungs internally and externally.[48] They are checked by a highly trained inspector (Bodek) who feels for adhesions.[49] He also checks them by inflating and placing the lungs in water to ascertain that they are airtight.[50] If they are completely smooth they are declared to be glatt (smooth). This means that the animal probably had a good health history. If they have too many adhesions, especially ones that are large or not easily removed, they are declared to be treifah. If the lungs have small adhesions which are easily removed[51] and prove to be airtight,[52] they are declared to be kosher but non-glatt.

The lungs of poultry are generally not checked since they usually do not have the problem of developing adhesions. They are therefore regarded as glatt even without examination.[53] They are only checked if there is cause to suspect that there might be a problem. However there are varying opinions as to when they should be checked.[54] In Israel, many slaughterhouses customarily check the lungs of all chickens slaughtered, as an extra precaution.

 Disjointed or Broken Wings or Bones

Nonetheless, it must be pointed out that if, upon buying poultry, one finds injuries that could have caused death, such as reddish-blue bruising, disjointed bones or wings, broken ribs or bones etc. a rabbinical authority should be consulted to determine if this was caused before or after slaughter. Of course, if such a problem arises, the entire chicken should be set aside and not cooked until the rabbi decides its kosher status.

Eating Glatt Kosher Meat

 Sephardim, who follow the rulings of Rabbi Yosef Caro (The Beit Yosef)[55] are required to consume only Glatt kosher meat. Ashkenazim, who follow the rulings of Rabbi Moshe Isserles (The Rema)[56] may consume non-Glatt meat. However, since today Glatt kosher meat is readily available and it has become prevalent that most observant Ashkenazim eat only strictly Glatt kosher meat, therefore, Ashkenazim too should make every effort to keep to this norm.

Forbidden Fats, Arteries and Veins

Certain fats, arteries and veins must be removed[57] within seventy-two hours[58] after slaughter. These are found in the thighs and legs, tongue, shoulder, chest, ribs, heart and spleen. This is a difficult process and requires skill. In most countries today (except for Israel), only the forequarter is purged of these vessels. The hindquarter, which has the sciatic nerve[59] running through it, is particularly difficult to purge and requires a high level of expertise. It is also a time consuming procedure. Much of the problem is therefore avoided by selling the hindquarter to non-kosher packinghouses.

Kosher Cuts of Meat

The following cuts of meat are from the hindquarter and usually will not be found in a kosher butcher store:

The T-bone, porterhouse sirloin, filet minion, whole flank, club steak, rump roast and round of beef.

The following cuts of meat are from the forequarter and may be found in a kosher butcher store:

The rib eye, rib steak, rib top, flank rib, London broil, brisket, neck, chuck roast, deckle, minute steak and shoulder roast.

Removal of Blood

The Torah prohibits the consumption of blood,[60] including the blood of kosher animals or poultry. Therefore, with the exception of liver, meat is soaked, salted and rinsed to remove the blood. This process is usually referred to as “koshering”. However, in actuality, it is only one stage in the koshering process. If the stages mentioned above did not precede it, the meat is not kosher. Moreover, in order for it to remain kosher, great care must be taken to adhere to the stage that follows it. (Since liver is saturated with blood, this method is ineffective. The procedure for removing blood from liver will be explained later.)

Nowadays, in the United States of America, kosher meat has already been soaked, salted and rinsed before it is sold at the kosher butcher store. Because of this, many young people are unfamiliar with the process. If they would find themselves in a foreign country, where the butcher does not soak and salt the meat, they would be at a loss of what to do. What was elementary for our mothers and grandmothers, has become a mystery to the modern family. The koshering process consists of three basic steps, as follows:

a) The meat is thoroughly rinsed of all surface blood.[61] It is then soaked in a vessel containing sufficient water to cover all its surfaces[62] for approximately thirty minutes.[63] Hot water should not be used, because it causes the blood to coagulate nor should very cold water be used since it causes it to adhere to the meat.[64] The soaking should not be done in a vessel normally used for eating or cooking. If possible, a special vessel should be reserved for this specific purpose.[65] However, if there is no such vessel and the need arises, a vessel normally used for eating and cooking may be used, on condition that afterwards it will be cleansed thoroughly of all residual blood.[66]

b) The meat is removed from the water and the excess water is permitted to drip off it. This is to assure that the salt will not become too diluted and ineffectual in drawing the blood out of the meat. However, a certain degree of wetness is desirable so that the salt should properly adhere to the meat.[67]

Medium coarse salt[68] (commonly sold as “Kosher salt”), rather than table salt, should be used. Nonetheless, if this is unavailable, fine salt may be used, even though it absorbs into the meat and does not draw out the blood as effectively.[69] Likewise, very coarse salt should be avoided as it tends to fall off the meat.[70] Nevertheless, if this is the only salt available it should be pounded into smaller pieces and then used.[71] However, if this was not done, and the meat has already been salted with very coarse salt, it is still acceptable and does not require re-salting.[72]

All surfaces[73] of the meat, including the inner cavity of poultry,[74] should be liberally covered with salt[75] and placed on a draining board for one hour.[76] To enable the blood to drip off the meat, the draining board should either have grooves in it, be slanted or be perforated.[77]

c) The meat is then thoroughly rinsed in a vessel three times[78] removing the salt and blood until the water is clear. Fresh water should be used for each consecutive rinse and the vessel should be cleansed between each rinse.[79]

Removal of Blood from Liver

As said above, because liver is saturated with blood, salting and soaking is ineffectual in removing blood from it, as it is with other meat. The only method of removing the blood is through roasting. However, because it is troublesome, it is recommended that you forego the effort and buy liver that has already been “koshered” by the butcher. Nonetheless, if you wish to do so, it is important to carefully adhere to the following instructions:

1) Though there are opinions that permit roasting frozen liver,[80] it is recommended to thaw it before roasting.[81] This must not be done in a microwave oven or by placing it in hot water[82] as this will cook it and cause the blood to coagulate in it. If necessary, liver may be thawed somewhat in lukewarm water.[83]

2) Thoroughly rinse the liver in water to remove all surface blood.[84]

3) Permit the water to dry off the liver.[85]

4) Make crisscross cuts on the outer surface of the liver. This makes it possible for the blood to drip freely during roasting.[86]

5) Immediately before roasting sprinkle a little salt on the liver.[87]

6) The liver may be placed on an electric, gas or barbeque grill. It may also be skewered.[88]

7) Because of its size, beef liver should be placed on the grill with the cuts facing down toward the heat source. In this way the blood will drip freely.[89]

8) The liver should not be roasted wrapped in tin or aluminum foil or any other wrapping.[90]

9) The liver should be roasted at medium rather than high temperatures so that the heat will penetrate it more efficiently. Furthermore, one should not constantly turn the meat over because this will not allow the blood to drip off it properly.[91]

10) If several livers are roasted at once they should not be piled one on top of the other on the grill.[92] Optimally, there should only be one layer of livers laying side-by-side.

11) The liver should not be cut while it is roasting on the fire. However, if this is done the knife must be rekoshered with fire before its next use.[93]

12) Other meat, poultry or vegetables should not be roasted together with the liver.[94]

13) Care should be taken that water does not spill on the liver while it is roasting.[95]

14) The grill and the fork, or any other instruments that are used to handle the liver, should be designated solely for this purpose. If a regular fork was inadvertently used it must be rekoshered with fire before its next use.[96]

15) It is only necessary to roast the liver until it is edible and its outer surface is dry.[97]

16) The liver should not be left on the grill or skewer once it is completely roasted lest it reabsorb the residual blood left on them.[98]

17) The liver should be rinsed and soak in fresh water three times.[99]

18) Unless they are designated solely for this purpose the skewer, grill and other instruments used to kosher liver should be koshered through fire prior to regular use.[100]

Soaking and Salting within Seventy-Two Hour Period & Problem of Frozen Meat

1) Meat should normally be soaked, salted and rinsed within seventy-two hours after slaughter. Beyond this time limit the blood may dry and harden and become impossible to purge, except through roasting.[101] Nonetheless, even though the option of roasting remains open, it is best not to leave meat unsalted for longer than three days lest one will forget and cook it instead. Moreover, after three days, it may not be cooked even after it is roasted. The same rule applies to liver.[102] However, the koshering process may be extended for an additional three days on condition that the meat is soaked in water during that time period.[103] Due to the above reasons, kosher butcher stores should not sell meat that has not been soaked and salted beyond this time limit.[104]

2) There are several conflicting opinions as to whether frozen meat may be “koshered” beyond this time limit.[105] To avoid controversy, most kosher meat today is soaked, salted and rinsed at the slaughter house or processing plant within seventy-two hours after slaughter and before freezing. It is then shipped, either fresh or frozen. However, should this problem ever arise, (that a person has frozen meat in his possession which has not been soaked and salted, beyond the prescribed seventy-two hour limit) a rabbinical authority should be consulted for a Halachic ruling.

Separating Meat and Milk

The Torah emphasizes three times, “Do not cook a kid in its mother’s milk”.[106] Since there are no superfluous words in the Torah this teaches us three things:[107]

a) That we are not to cook meat and milk together.

b) That we are not to eat meat and milk together.

c) That we are not to derive any benefit from meat and milk which were cooked together.

Therefore, even though all the above qualifications have been fulfilled, nonetheless, the meat is not kosher if it is cooked together with any dairy product. This being the case, meat may not be cooked in any vessel that may have absorbed dairy. Likewise, dairy may not be cooked in any vessel that may have absorbed meat. Because of this, separate pots, pans, utensils and dishes are used for meat and separate ones are used for dairy. If a mixture of meat and dairy has been cooked, this food is prohibited. It may not be eaten, nor may it be sold or even given as a gift to a non-Jew. It may not be given to any animal to eat. This rule applies not only to one’s own animal, but even to a stray dog which is ownerless.[108] Rather, the food must be discarded in such a manner that no creature will derive benefit from it.[109] Therefore, it must be buried or flushed down the toilet etc. The rules regarding the separation of meat and milk will be given later in greater detail.

Reciting Special Blessing

Lastly, a blessing must be recited over all food before[110] and after[111] eating or drinking. The Torah states,[112] “Blessed is Abram to G-d Most High, Who possesses the heavens and the earth.” G-d is the Creator and Master of the universe. The entire cosmos, from the vastest galaxies billions of light years away, to the most insignificant creature on our planet, is part and parcel of G-d’s possessions. Not a single thing; not even the tiniest sub-atomic particle, exists outside of His domain.

This also includes the human being. Even though G-d instilled the power of free will into us, nonetheless, we are His creatures and are thus totally dependant and beholden to Him in every way. If we eat or drink without blessing and thanking Him for the goodness He has bestowed upon us, it is tantamount to theft and displays our total lack of gratitude and appreciation for all He has done for us. It is as if we are taking someone else’s property without asking permission,[113]

However, by reciting a blessing and thanking G-d, it is as if we are asking permission from Him. If all the qualifications for the preparation of kosher food have been fulfilled (such as the above qualifications of kosher meat), He grants us His permission and His blessings, and we may eat.[114] (Albeit, if a person ate kosher food but failed to recite the blessing, he is not guilty of eating non-kosher food. He only is guilty of not thanking G-d for the blessing of having food, thereby receiving Divine permission to eat.[115])

Now, regarding the words of the blessings, it must be pointed out that they were coined by our holy sages[116] thousands of years ago. These were men of great renown and learning who possessed tremendous spiritual and moral stature. Some, such as several members of the “Great Assembly” (אנשי כנסת הגדולה) were prophets[117] who received direct communication from G-d[118] and all were men imbued with the Holy Spirit (רוח הקודש), so much so, that some were even capable of raising the dead.[119]

Therefore, a person should not compose blessings of his own accord, using his own words and disregarding the words of our holy sages,[120] G-d forbid. Rather, he should recite the blessings exactly as our holy sages coined them. However, to give informal thanks to G-d, in addition to the obligatory blessings and prayers, using our own words in appreciation of all the bountiful goodness He has bestowed upon us, is not only permissible and commendable, but should be encouraged. Such informal prayer may be done in any language a person feels comfortable with. Speaking to G-d in our own words enhances our sense of personal relationship with Him and draws us closer to Him.

The blessing recited before eating meat is:

“Blessed are you, L-rd our G-d, King of the universe that everything came into being according to His word”

(ברוך אתה ה’ אלקינו מלך העולם שהכל נהיה בדברו)

A detailed list of the appropriate blessings for each category of food and some of the underlying principles regarding the order of their recital will be given later.

Kosher Fish

There are thousands of kosher and non-kosher species of fish. The Torah therefore does not identify kosher species by name, but rather, gives us definitive signs by which to recognize them. It states,[121] “This is what you may eat from all that is in the water: anything that has a fin and scale, in the water, in the seas and in the streams, those you may eat. Anything that has no fin and scale, in the seas and in the streams, from anything creeping in the water and from any living creature that is in the water, they are abhorrent to you. They shall be abhorrent to you; do not eat from their flesh and abhor their carcass. Anything that has no fins and scales in the water is abhorrent for you.”

However, only those species that have true scales are kosher. This means that the scales are similar to a coat of mail[122] and come off readily without part of the skin ripping off when they are removed.[123] There are four types of fish scales: These are the ctenoid, cycloid, placoid and ganoid scales. The ctenoid and cycloid scales are true scales that readily come off. All kosher fish have these types of scales. Fish that possess placoid or ganoid scales are not kosher. They are not regarded as being truescales because of the difficulty in removing them.

All fish that possess scales, most certainly possess fins.[124] On the other hand, fish that possess fins do not necessarily possess true scales.[125] This being the case, if one receives a piece of fish, such as a filet which has scales on it, even if there are no fins, the fish is permissible. However, if the filet has no scales, even if it has fins, it is forbidden. Fins, in and of themselves are insufficient in identifying the fish as kosher.[126]  Fish do not require slaughter as do birds and animals,[127] nor is the consumption of their blood prohibited.[128] Additional rules regarding the consumption of fish will be given later.

Checking Eggs for Blood

 As stated above, the Torah prohibits the consumption of blood.[129] This also includes blood found in eggs, especially fertilized ones.[130] Therefore eggs should be checked for blood before use. The standard procedure is as follows:

a) Fertilized eggs have a high rate of blood spotting and should be checked before use. Though blood is found less frequently in unfertilized eggs, they should be checked as well.[131]

b) It is preferable to use white eggs because brown ones have a higher frequency of blood spotting. However, this is merely a suggestion. Brown eggs may certainly be used.

c) Prepare a glass cup, preferably one with a flat, clear bottom. Also, have a bowl handy to deposit the eggs that have been checked.

d) Break each egg into the glass individually and examine it for blood spots. Lift the glass to examine the bottom of the egg too. Once you are satisfied that it is blood free, pour it into the bowl and examine the next egg.

e) Fertilized eggs that have blood spotting should be discarded. However, if a blood spot is found in an unfertilized egg, it could be removed and the rest of the egg may be consumed.[132] Nonetheless, the prevalent custom is to be stringent and discard it as well.[133]  Ask your rabbi for his opinion.

f) Since it is impossible to check eggs for blood before boiling them in their shell, many are accustomed to boil an odd number of no less than three eggs at a time. This assures that if one contains blood it will be in the minority. The eggs may then be consumed without further checking. Of course, in the unlikely event that, after boiling, one finds evidence of blood spotting, the affected egg should be discarded.

[1] ספר השרשים, שרש כשר

[2] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות, פרק ב:א

[3] Leviticus 11:2-3

[4] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות, פרק א:ב

[5] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות פרק א:ח

[6] שם פרק א:ח

[7]  Leviticus 11:4-8

[8] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורותת פרק א:ב, ופרק ב:א

[9] גמ’ חולין נט ע”א עד ס ע”ב

[10] On Leviticus 11:4

[11] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות, פרק א:יד, שו”ע יו”ד פב:א.

[12] שו”ע יו”ד פב:א.

[13] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות א:טז.

[14] רמב”ם, מאכלות אסורות א:טז, שו”ע פב:ב.

[15] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות שם, שו”ע יו”ד פב:ב.

[16]  משנה חולין נט ע”א, וראה רמב”ם, מאכלות אסורות שם, שו”ע יו”ד שם.

[17] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות שם, שו”ע יו”ד שם.

[18] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות שם, שו”ע יו”ד שם.

[19] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות א:טו, שו”ע פב:ב.

[20] השל”ה אסר אכילתו אבל בספר נחל אשכול סי’ כב כתב שנאכל במסורת מדורות וכן נהוג, ואעפ”כ אם יש מסורת משפחתי שלא לאכלו ראוי שאנשי המשפחה לא יאכלוהו.

[21] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות, פרק ד:א

[22] Deuteronomy 14:21

[23] Exodus 22:30

[24] That is, it will likely die within a twelve month period.

[25] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות, פרק ד:ו-יב, הל’ שחיטה פרק ה:א

[26] Exodus 22:30

[27] רמב”ם הלכות שחיטה י:ט

[28] שם י:יב

[29] שם י:יג

[30] Deuteronomy 12:21. ראה גמרא חולין כח ע”א. .

[31] חולין כח:א, שו”ע יו”ד א:א.

[32] רמ”א יו”ד א:א.

[33]שו”ע יו”ד ח:א ורמ”א שם, ש”ך יו”ד ח:ב.

[34] שו”ע יו”ד ו:א.

[35] גמ’ חולין ט ע”ב, רמב”ם הל’ שחיטה, פרק ג:א, שו”ע יו”ד כג-כד.

[36] רמב”ם הל’ שחיטה, פרק ג:ב-ח, שו”ע יו”ד כג.

[37] שם פרק ג:יא, שו”ע יו”ד כד.

[38] שם פרק ג:ט-י, שו”ע יו”ד כד.

[39] שו”ע יו”ד כ:ג.

[40] שם פרק ג:יב-יג, שו”ע יו”ד כד.

[41] שו”ע יו”ד כד.

[42] שו”ע יו”ד יח:יב, רמב”ם הל’ שחיטה, פרק ג:יד-יז, חכמ”א ג:טז.

[43] Deuteronomy 22:4 גמ’ ב”מ ל”ב ע”ב,

[44] The prohibition against the consumption of blood excludes the blood of kosher species of fish and locusts (שו”ע יו”ד סו:א).

[45] It is permissible to swallow one’s own blood as long as it is still internal. However, if it exits the lips it is forbidden (שו”ע יו”ד סו:י)

[46] Leviticus 7:26

[47] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות פרק ד:ו-יב

[48] שו”ע יו”ד לה-לט.

[49] רמב”ם הל’ שחיטה פרק ז, שו”ע יו”ד לט.

[50] רמ”א יו”ד לט:א.

[51] רמ”א יו”ד לט:יג, ש”ך יו”ד לט:לג.

[52] ש”ך יו”ד לט:לד.

[53] רמב”ם הל’ שחיטה פרק יא:יב, גליון מהרש”א על שו”ע יו”ד לט:א, חכ”א יד:לד.

[54] לענין במקום או זמן ששכיח מחלת הריאות בעופות ראה משכנות יעקב סי’ ט”ו ודרכ”ת סק”ג וכן ראה אבן ישראל פרק ז, וראה שבט הלוי סי’ יד:ו-טו, דע”ת סי’ מ”א סק”כ, מנח”י סי’ ל”ח ענף ב סעיף א, ראש אפרים סי’ ל”ח, ועוד.

[55] שו”ע יו”ד לט:י.

[56] רמ”א יו”ד לט:יג.

[57] Leviticus 7:23.

[58] Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah 64.  However, according to the Rema (Yoreh Deah 64:18) even though, in the first place, this should be done within seventy-two hours, nonetheless, after the fact, if it is done after seventy-two hours, the meat is still permissible.

[59] Genesis 32:33

[60] Leviticus 7:26-27, 17:10-12, Deuteronomy 12:23. The blood of kosher species of fish or locusts is the exception to this rule and is permissible (שו”ע יו”ד סו:א). However, except for Yemenite Jews, most Jewish communities today do not know the signs by which to recognize kosher locust. Furthermore, it is becoming a lost art, even amongst Yemenite Jews.

[61] שו”ע יו”ד סט:א. וראה ש”ך סט:א וט”ז שם.

[62] דרכ”ת יו”ד סט:כ.

[63] רמ”א יו”ד סט:א.

[64] פת”ש יו”ד סט:א.

[65] רמ”א שם, וראה ש”ך יו”ד סט:ז, ט”ז סט:ה.

[66]  חכמ”א ל:ו, כה”ח יו”ד סט:כד.

[67] רמ”א יו”ד סט:א, ט”ז סט:ד, ש”ך סט:ו, ביאור הגר”א סט:ז.

[68] שו”ע יו”ד סט:ג

[69] שו”ע יו”ד סט:ג, ש”ך סט:יז, ט”ז סט:יב, וראה פת”ש סט:ט.

[70] שו”ע סט:ג.

[71] ש”ך יו”ד סט:יח, ט”ז סט:יב.

[72] ש”ך סט:יז, חכמ”א ל:ז.

[73]  שו”ע יו”ד סט:ד, ביאור הגר”א סט:כב.

[74] שו”ע שם, ביאורי הגר”א שם.

[75] שו”ע יו”ד סט:ד, ביאור הגר”א סט:יט.

[76] רמ”א סט:ו.

[77] שו”ע יו”ד סט:טז.

[78] רמ”א יו”ד סט:ז, ביאורי הגר”א סט:לג.

[79] שו”ע יו”ד סט:ז.

[80] שבט הקהתי ה:קלא.

[81] ספר מתת ידו פט.

[82] רמ”א יו”ד סח:יא.

[83] שו”ת ישיב משה יו”ד ג.

[84] שו”ע ורמ”א יו”ד עו:ב. וראה ש”ך יו”ד עו:א.

[85] דרכ”ת יו”ד עג:יז ועו:ג.

[86] שו”ע ורמ”א יו”ד עג:א, דרכ”ת שם.

[87] רמ”א יו”ד עג:ה, עו:ב.

[88] בארות אברהם יו”ד יב.

[89] שו”ע יו”ד עג:א.

[90] חכמ”א לד:טז, כה”ח סה:ד, פת”ש יו”ד עג:א.

[91] רמ”א יו”ד עו:ב.

[92] מועדים וזמנים ג:קלו, ח:רלו.

[93] שו”ע ורמ”א יו”ד עו:ד.

[94] שו”ע יו”ד עג:ד.

[95] דרכ”ת עג:יז.

[96] שו”ע ורמ”א יו”ד עו:ד.

[97] רמ”א יו”ד עו:ב, וראה ט”ז שם.

[98] שו”ע יו”ד עו:ד, וראה ט”ז וש”ך שם.

[99] רמ”א יו”ד עג:ה, וראה ש”ך יו”ד עו:טו.

[100]שו”ע ורמ”א יו”ד עו:ו.

[101] שו”ע יו”ד סט:יב.

[102] אלא בדיעבד מותר, שו”ע סט:יב וראה ט”ז סט:לב, ביאור הגר”א סט:נ.

[103] שו”ע יו”ד סט:יג, ש”ך יו”ד סט:נג.

[104] אג”מ יו”ד ג:ז.

[105] דרכ”ת יו”ד סט:נ, פת”ש סט:ו, באה”ט סט:ח.

[106] Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:26, Deuteronomy 14:21.

[107] גמ’ חולין קח ע”ב, וראה שו”ע יו”ד פז:א.

[108]  שו”ע יו”ד פז:א, חכמ”א מ:ב.

[109] ערוה”ש יו”ד פז:ז.

[110] The recital of a blessing before the consumption of food is a rabbinical injunction.

[111] The recital of blessings after the consumption of a formal meal is a biblical commandment. A formal meal is defined as any meal that involved the breaking of bread, which is the staff of life. The after-blessing recited after consuming other foods is rabbinical in origin.

[112] Genesis 14:19

[113] תהילים כד:א, שו”ע הרב קסז:א.

[114] ברכות לה:א-אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מהעוה”ז בלא ברכה, וכן בברייתא-כל הנהנה מהעוה”ז בלא ברכה מעל.

[115] תוספתא ד:א-לא יטעם אדם כלום עד שיברך שנאמר לה’ הארץ ומלואה וגו’. הנהנה מן העוה”ז מעל עד שיתירו לו כל המצות.

[116] אג”מ או”ח חלק ה:ח.

[117]  These are Chagai, Zechariah and Malachi  חגי זכרי’ ומלאכי-

[118] פירוש הרע”ב בריש מס’ אבות.

[119] גמ’ מגילה ז:ב.

[120] ב”י או”ח סוף סי’ מ”ז.

[121] Leviticus 11:9-12

[122] גמ’ חולין נט ע”א, שו”ע יו”ד פג:א

[123] רמ”א יו”ד פג:א

[124] רמב”ם הל’ מאכלות אסורות א:כד, שו”ע יו”ד פג:ג.

[125] שו”ע יו”ד שם.

[126] גמ’ חולין נט ע”א, רמב”ם מאכלות אסורות א:כד, שו”ע יו”ד פג:ג

[127] שו”ע יו”ד יג:א.

[128] שו”ע יו”ד סו:א.

[129] Lev. 7:26-27, 17:10-12, Deut. 12:23 ויקרא ז:כו, יז:י, דברים יב:כג

[130]  שו”ע יו”ד סו:ב, אג”מ יו”ד א:לו.

[131] אג”מ יו”ד א:לו.

[132] אג”מ יו”ד שם.

[133] אג”מ יו”ד שם.

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