With the above in mind, the division of the ten sefirot of Yosher and their inclusion and connection with each other may be understood. The sefirot of Tikkun are divided into three lines of expression. These are Kindness, Judgment and Mercy (Chesed, Din, Rachamim). The quality of kindness is represented as a line to the right, the quality of Judgment as a line to the left and the quality of mercy as a line in the middle, between the other two lines. The three sefirot Chochmah, Chesed and Netzachmake up the right line, the sefirot Binah, Gevurah and Hod make up the left line, and the sefirot Da’at, Tiferet and Yesod make up the middle line. Now, it must be understood that on the level of Keter of Keter, which is the inner aspect of Keter, there is no division into three lines. This is because Keter of Keter is a simple essential desire which is indivisible into parts. Rather, the three lines begin to separate as distinct modes of expression beginning with the external aspect of Keter. This external aspect begins with Chochmah of Keter onward. Now, the inclusion and connection of the right and left lines with each other comes about specifically through the middle line which represents the quality of connection.
The explanation of the matter is as follows: In the right line, though Chochmah, Chesed, and Netzach are related to each other, nonetheless they are separate matters from each other. For example, Chochmah is an intellect and reasoning which leans toward being kind. This is because Chochmah, which is the intuitive flash of inspiration, views things in a holistic fashion. It will, therefore, tend to lean toward kindness. For example, in a criminal court case, if we look at the whole person, such as what his upbringing, economic and social circumstances are etc., for the most part, there will be a greater tendency to view the defendant favorably, than if only the details of the crime itself are scrutinized. From this we see that Chesed, which is the giving of influence, is an offshoot of Chochmah.
In turn, Netzach is an offshoot of Chesed. Chesed is the quality of expansive and abundant spreading forth of influence. SinceNetzach is the quality of Conquest, which is the matter of spreading forth by expanding the borders of his influence, we see that it is an offshoot of Chesed. But, on the other hand, it is an altogether separate matter from Chesed, just as Chesed is a separate matter from Chochmah, though it is an offshoot of it. Netzach is not a form of Chesed. Nonetheless, when there is a desire to do a Chesed, all obstacles to its fulfillment must be overcome in order for it to come to fruition. This is a function ofNetzach, which is the quality of perseverance, overcoming of obstacles, and victory. This is to say that the quality of kindness necessitates the drive to triumph, in order to bring about the actualization of that kindness etc. An example of this may be understood from the parent/child relationship. When a parent wants to influence his child in a way of Netzach, he explains to him why he should think or act in a certain way until he has “won him over” to his way of thinking or acting.
In the left line too, though Binah, Gevurah and Hod are related to each other, nonetheless they are separate matters from each other. This is because Binah, constitutes close scrutiny and comprehensive analysis. Because of this, it is specifically in Binahthat faults will begin to be noticed and judgments will be aroused. Therefore, there will be a greater tendency toward being judgmental. From this we see that Gevurah, which is the quality of restraint and the withholding of influence, is an offshoot ofBinah. For this reason the verse states, “I am Binah, Gevurah is mine.”
In turn, Hod is an offshoot of Gevurah. Gevurah is the quality of restraint and the withholding of influence. Hod, which is the quality of submission to authority, is its offshoot. In the parent/child relationship, this is when the parent demands that the child should act or desist from acting in a certain way, not because he has “won him over” to his way of thinking, as with Netzach, but by force of authority alone. “You must do it because I said so. I don’t owe you explanations.” In the case of a citizen of a country, this is the fact that a person must submit to the laws of the land, whether he agrees with them or not. When he is stopped for a traffic violation, he cannot argue the merits or demerits of the law with the police officer. He must submit, and if he does not, he will be arrested and restrained. This is to say that the quality of Gevurah necessitates the submission to authority of Hod in order to bring about the actualization of Gevurah.
Now, the inclusion of theses two opposite lines, so that they become connected and synthesized as one, is brought about through the middle line which is made up of Da’at, Tiferet and Yesod, etc. The first example of this is Da’at, which acts as a mediator and tips the mind from intellectual kindness to intellectual sternness, or visa versa. It is specifically the faculty of Da’atwhich dictates how these intellectual leanings will be. This is evidenced by the verse in which G-d said after the flood, “I will not continue to curse the earth because of mankind, because the inclination of man’s heart is evil from his youth, I will, therefore, not continue to punish any living thing, as I had done.” Here, man’s inclination to evil is given as the logic and reason for judging them favorably, whereas prior to the flood, the identical reason was given for judging them as guilty, as is written, “And HaShemsaw that the evil of man was great on earth, and that all the inclinations of his heart were only evil all day long.” From this we see that it is specifically in Da’at that the two conceptually opposite qualities of Chesed and Gevurah become connected, leaning toward kindness in one manner and toward judgment in another, even in regard to the same case.
Likewise, it is the quality of Tiferet, which is the next quality of the middle line, which tips the scales between heartfelt kindness and heartfelt sternness. This is because Tiferet represents mercy. However, mercy is only applicable after the quality of judgment has concluded that the person is guilty. Through Tiferet, even though there was a guilty verdict, mercy releases him. Just as Chesed is the quality of Avraham and Gevurah is the quality of Yitzchak, so is the mercy of Tiferet the quality ofYaakov, as will be explained later.
The quality of Yesod, which is the next level of the middle line, also acts as a mediator and combines the two opposite gut emotions of Netzach and Hod. The gut emotions of Netzach and Hod are no longer heartfelt emotions but are rather emotions as they relate to action. For instance, a guest at a wedding banquet feels the heartfelt emotion of joy for the bride and groom. The gut emotion, on the other hand, is that he has an urge to get up and dance for joy. This is the matter of the “advise of the kidneys” which represent Netzach and Hod. They counsel, either “Yes” or “No” before the influence comes out from the influencer into action. This takes place whenever it is necessary to influence the essential qualities of Chesed and Gevurah and bring them into action etc. It is Yesod, which represents the fulcrum, that tips the scales and decides how the Netzach and Hodwill be put into action and exactly in what proportion they will be, just as every time that a decision is made, it comes about through tipping the balance of the scales to one side or the other.
When the verdict is decided, it is weighed on the “Scales of Righteousness” which are Netzach and Hod. They decide exactly how to bring the influence out to the recipient. If the decision is favorable, there will be a greater proportion of Netzach to Hod, and if it is not, there will be a greater proportion of Hod to Netzach. The general matter of the middle line of Da’at, Tiferet andYesod, is that it connects the two lines to its right and left. Furthermore, it is specifically the sefirot of the middle line which have the ability to connect the qualities of the right and left, because unlike the other sefirot which necessitate each other but are not direct expressions of each other, the sefirot of the middle line are directly related to each other. This is so because they all represent different manifestations of the quality of connection. Da’at represents mental connection, Tiferet represents emotional connection and Yesod represents connection on the gut level as it relates to action.
Now, the particulars of how the sefirot are combined, are called the, “Twelve diagonal lines”, (Yud Beit G’vulay Alachson) whereas the middle line is called, “The inner beam”, (Bree’ach Hatichon) that runs through from one end to the other end. On the one end it reaches up into the desire of Keter and on the other end it reaches down into the speech and actions of Malchut. This means that it goes all the way up to the inner aspect of Keter (pleasure and desire), which itself is higher than the division into lines. It is specifically because of this that it has the power to unify and synthesize the two opposite lines to the right and left, and to go down and connect with Malchut (speech and action). In this way the middle line is actually made up of the sefirot ofKeter, Da’at, Tiferet, Yesod and Malchut.