(In which is explained the matter of the Divine names and the principles pertaining to them)
60. Midrash Rabba states, “G_d said to Moshe, “You wish to know my name? I am called according to my deeds. I may be called El Shaddai, Tzvaoth, Elokim or YHVH. When I judge the creatures, I am called Elokim, when I battle the wicked, I am called Tzvaoth, when I suspend the sins of man, I am called El Shaddai, and when I have mercy upon my world, I am called YHVH”. The name YHVH always denotes the attribute of mercy, as stated, “YHVH, YHVH is a merciful and gracious G_d.” This is the meaning of “I will be as I will be”, that is “I will be called according to my deeds”. (The sages stated that the names of the angels too, correspond to their mission, and differ accordingly.)
61. Likewise, the names of the Sefirot reflect their specific conduct, and differ accordingly.
62. The Ancients, therefore, mention ten unerasable names, corresponding to the vessels of the ten general sefirot through which G_d relates to his world, as follows:
Keter corresponds to Eheyeh
Chochmah to Yah
Binah to YHVH with the vowel points of Elokim 
(Daat to EHVH)
Chesed to El
Gevurah to Elokim
Tiferet to YHVH
Netzach to YHVH Tzvaoth
Hod to Elokim Tzvaoth
Yesod to Shaddai or El Chai
and Malchut to Adonai
63. In addition, the name YHVH also alludes to all the ten Sefirot, as follows;
The tip of the Yod corresponds to Keter,
The body of the Yod to Chochmah
The first Hey to Binah
The vav to the six Sefirot of Zeir Anpin
and the final Hey to Malchut.
64. YHVH indicates that G_d was, is, and will be, and is the source of all being. It alludes to the manner in which the world is presently conducted. Keter (or Eheyeh), though the underlying and motivating factor in the world, is exceedingly hidden, and will only be revealed in the world to come. For this reason, it is merely hinted at in the name YHVH, by the tip of the Yod.
65. Eheyeh represents Keter and Arich Anpin, which is great and unqualified mercy, whereas YHVH represents Tiferet and Zeir Anpin, which is the system of justice and qualified mercy. Yet Etz Chayim states that Eheyeh is a greater severity then YHVH. That is, since Eheyeh is presently withheld and will only be revealed in the world to come, the world as it is today receives greater mercy from YHVH than from Eheyeh which is almost entirely concealed. Its very concealment is its severity.
66. There are ten vowels, corresponding to the inner lights of the ten Sefirot. Each Sefirah possesses the name YHVH with different vowel points, as follows;
Kamatz ( ָ ) for Keter,
Patach ( ַ ) for Chochmah,
Tzeirei ( ֵ ) for Binah,
Segol ( ֶ ) for Chesed
Shvah ( ְ ) for Gevurah
Cholem ( ֹ ) for Tiferet
Chirik ( ִ ) for Netzach
Koobootz ( ֻ ) for Hod
Shoorook ( ּ ) for Yesod
67. The vessel of Daat is EHVH (אהו”ה) which combines the first two letters (א”ה) of Eheyeh and the last two letters (ו”ה) of YHVH. The vowels of the YHVH of Daat which represents its inner light, are in accordance with the pronunciation of each particular letter, as follows;
Cholem for the Yod (יֹ)
Tzeirei for the Hey (הֵ)
Kamatz for the Vav (וָ)
and Tzeirei for the final Hey (הֵ)
68. The Divine names may be expanded by spelling out their individual letters as follows;
Gimmel (גימ”ל) etc.
The letters Hey (ה) and Vav (ו) each have three possible spellings;
HY (ה”י) VYV (וי”ו)
HA (ה”א) VAV (וא”ו)
HH (ה”ה) VV (ו”ו)
YHVH may therefore be expanded into several possible spellings depending on the variant spellings of the letters Hey (ה) and Vav (ו).
69. There are four general expansions of YHVH;
The first is YOD HY VYV HY (יו”ד ה”י וי”ו ה”י) and is expanded with Yods. This is the name of 72-A”V (ע”ב) which is its numerical value.
The second is YOD HY VAV HY (יו”ד ה”י וא”ו ה”י) and is expanded with Yods and an Aleph. This is the name of 63-SA”G (ס”ג) which is its numerical value.
The third is YOD HA VAV HA (יו”ד ה”א וא”ו ה”א) and is expanded with Alephs. This is the name of 45-M”AH (מ”ה) which is its numerical value.
The last is YOD HH VV HH (יו”ד ה”ה ו”ו ה”ה). This is the name of 52-B”AN (ב”ן) which is its numerical value. It is called Ban (ב”ן) though the proper grammatical form is Nav (נ”ב), the greater value preceding the lesser. This is to avoid the confusion of Av (ע”ב) with Nav (נ”ב).  
70. The expansions of YHVH, (Av-72, Sag-63, Mah-45, and Ban-52) correspond to the five Statures (Partzufim) which are represented by the name YHVH;
Av-72 corresponds to Keter and Chochmah, represented by the tip and body of the Yod (י).
Sag-63 corresponds to Binah, represented by the first Hey (ה).
Mah-45 corresponds to the six Sefirot of Zeir Anpin represented by the Vav (ו).
And Ban-52 corresponds to Malchut, represented by the final Hey (ה).
71. The letters Yod (י), Aleph (א), and Hey (ה), represent the three modes of conduct; Kindness, mercy and judgment. Av-72 represents Keter and Chochmah, because it is filled entirely with Yods, and is pure Kindness. Sag-63 is filled with Yods except for the Aleph in the Vav. This indicates that it is mostly kindness with a portion of mercy. It therefore represents Binah. The Aleph appears in the Vav of Sag-63 because the Vav, as well, represents the quality of mercy.
72. Mah-45 is merciful and inclines toward kindness (as does the Sefirah of Tiferet) because it is filled entirely with Alephs. It therefore corresponds to Zeir Anpin, the qualified system of justice.
Ban-52 is Judgment. This is because it is filled with Heys and its Vav is empty. It therefore, represents Malchut, which is “Righteous Judgment” and may be severe.
73. Thus, Av-72 is entirely kindness, Sag-63 is kindness with a degree of mercy, Mah-45 is merciful and leans toward kindness, and Ban-52 is entirely judgment.
74. Each of these expansions, Av, Sag, Mah, and Ban may be subdivided as follows; Av of Av, Sag of Av, Mah of Av and Ban of Av etc. This principle applies to all four names.
75. These subdivisions may also be further subdivided as follows; Av of Av of Av, Sag of Av of Av, Mah of Av of Av, Ban of Av of Av. This applies to all the subdivisions.
76. Torah script is comprised of four elements. Cantillations, vowels, crownlets and letters, corresponding to Av, Sag, Mah, and Ban as follows;
Av corresponds to Cantillations
Sag to Vowels
Mah to Crownlets
and Ban to Letters
Sometimes the names Av, Sag, Mah, and Ban are called by these corresponding counterparts.
77. As Av, Sag, Mah, and Ban are subdivided, so too are these, as follows; Cantillations of Cantillations, Vowels of Cantillations, Crownlets of Cantillations, and Letters of Cantillations etc. This principle applies to all four elements.
78. Sometimes the letters and the crownlets are considered to be one, since they are connected when written in the Torah, so that only three elements are enumerated.
79. The name Eheyeh also has three extensions representing kindness, mercy, and judgment
The first is filled with Yods as follows; ALEPH–HY–YOD–HY (אל”ף ה”י יו”ד ה”י) and represents kindness of Eheyeh. It is called the name of 161(קס”א) which is its numerical value.
The second is filled with Alephs as follows; ALEPH–HA–YOD–HA (אל”ף ה”א יו”ד ה”א) and represents mercy of Eheyeh. It is called the name of 143(קמ”ג).
The third is filled with Heys as follows; ALEPH–HH–YOD–HH (אל”ף ה”ה יו”ד ה”ה) and represents judgment of Eheyeh. It is called the name of 151(קנ”א).
80. The name of Elokim also has three extensions representing kindness, mercy, and judgment:
The first is filled with Yods as follows; ALEPH–LAMED–HY–YOD–MEM (אל”ף למ”ד ה”י יו”ד מ”ם) and represents an inclination toward kindness in Elokim.
The second is filled with Alephs as follows; ALEPH–LAMED–HA–YOD–MEM ( אל”ף למ”ד ה”א יו”ד מ”ם) and represents an inclination toward mercy in Elokim.
The third is filled with Heys as follows; ALEPH–LAMED–HH–YOD–MEM (אל”ף למ”ד ה”ה יו”ד מ”ם) and represents the total judgment of Elokim.
81. The extended names may be further extended by spelling out each letter of the extension as follows;
The Ineffable Name – Y-H-V-H
Name of 72-Av – YOD–HY–VYV–HY
Extension of Extension – YOD-VYV-DALET–HY-YOD–VYV-YOD-VYV–HY-YOD
This principle applies to all the Divine names.
82. There is another aspect of the Divine names called Ribuah-squaring, whereby after each consecutive letter the name reverts to its beginning, for example the square of Y-H-V-H is;
The square of Shaddai is;
This principle applies to all the Divine names and indicates judgment. A squared name reflects the aspect of the “back” אחוריים-.
83. The principle of Ribuah-squaring also applies to all the extended names, for example; the square of the name of 72-Av is;
84. The letters of the Divine names may also be arranged in all their possible combinations. This is called Tziruf-Combinations (צירוף). To illustrate, the name YOD–HEY–VAV (י’ה’ו) has six possible combinations corresponding to the six Sefirot, as follows:
Chesed corresponds to Y”V”H (י’ו’ה)
Gevurah to H”V”Y (ה’ו’י)
Tiferet to V”Y”H (ו’י’ה)
Netzach to Y”H”V (י’ה’ו)
Hod to H”Y”V (ה’י’ו)
and Yesod to V”H”Y (ו’ה’י)
This order follows the principle that the more essential quality takes precedence in the order of the letters. Chesed and Netzach, which are in the right column, begin with Yod, representing kindness. Gevurah and Hod, which are in the left column, begin with Hey, representing judgment. Tiferet and Yesod, which are in the middle column, begin with Vav, representing mercy. Since Chesed is a higher level of kindness than Netzach, the Vav representing mercy, precedes the Hey, which represents judgment. Netzach, being a lower level, is the reverse. Since Gevurah is more severe in judgment than Hod, the Vav, representing mercy, precedes the Yod which represents Kindness. Hod, being less severe, is the reverse. Since Tiferet inclines toward kindness, the Yod precedes the Hey. The reverse is true of Yesod.
85. A name consisting of four letters would normally have twenty-four possible combinations -צירופים, but since Y-H-V-H has two like letters, only twelve combinations are possible. Elokim, which has five letters, has one hundred and twenty possible combinations. These are called “The one hundred and twenty combinations of Elokim” (ק”כ צירופים דאלהים)
86. The general principle of combinations (צירוף) is that the closer the resemblance of the letters to the true configuration of the name, the more they indicate mercy, the more reversed they are, the more judgment.
87. The Divine names may also be interwoven. This is called Shiluv-weaving (שילוב) in which the letters of one name are coupled with those of another, in alternating order. For example, the names Y-H-V-H and Adonai (A-D-N-Y) may be interwoven as follows;
A.) Y’H’V’H A’D’N’Y = Y’A’H’D’V’N’H’Y ( י’ה’ו’ה א’ד’נ’י = י’א’ה’ד’ו’נ’ה’י) or
B.) A’D’N’Y Y’H’V’H = A’Y’D’H’N’V’Y’H (א’ד’נ’י י’ה’ו’ה = א’י’ד’ה’נ’ו’י’ה)
The interweaving of two names indicates that two modes of Divine conduct are acting as one. The first letter of the weaving-Shiluv indicates which conduct is the more essential, to illustrate, in example (A) Y’H’V’H which represents mercy is the more essential whereas in example (B) A’D’N’Y which represents Malchut and judgment is the more essential.
88. Just as the letters have numerical values, so do the vowels. The vowels are composed of lines and points. A point, which resembles the letter Yod, has the numerical value of ten. A line, which resembles the letter Vav, has the numerical value of six. The numerical values of the vowels are therefore;
Kamatz ( ָ ) = 16 – Keter
Patach ( ַ ) = 6 – Chochmah
Tzeirei ( ֵ ) = 20 – Binah
Segol ( ֶ ) = 30 – Chesed
Shvah ( ְ ) = 20 – Gevurah
Cholem ( ֹ ) = 10 – Tiferet
Cheerik ( ִ ) = 10 – Netzach
Koobootz ( ֻ ) = 30 – Hod
Shoorook ( ּ ) = 10 – Yesod
No Vowel – Malchut
89. There is a Divine name of seventy-two which is comprised of seventy-two three letter units. These are derived from the intertwining of the letters in three Biblical verses (Exodus 14:19 – 21) each of which contains seventy two letters. The first letters in each of the seventy-two units are the letters of the first verse in their natural order. The middle letters of each of the units are the letters of the second verse, backwards, and the last letters are the letters of the third verse, again in natural order. This name generally indicates the aspect of kindness. In Lurianic Kaballah “The name of seventy-two” usually refers to the extension of Y’H’V’H that has the numerical value of 72-Av (ע”ב) rather than this name.
90. The Divine names reflect G_d’s actions toward the world. When in Scripture, one name is used and another is then introduced in its stead or added to it, this indicates a change of Divine influence toward the world. This comes about either through G_d’s initiative or as a response to Man’s deeds. When, for instance, the name Elokim is used and is then exchanged for Y’H’V’H, it indicates that the Divine influence changed from Judgment to Mercy.
91. G_d influences the world in accordance with its needs and as a response to Man’s actions. When Man acts meritoriously, G_d responds with kindness and revelation, and if, G_d forbid, Man acts otherwise, G_d responds in kind. These different influences result from the needs of the recipients, and in no way indicate a change in the Giver, who is unchanging.
92. G_d influences the world in a multitude of ways, each of which has its own specific name. Every word in the Torah is a Divine name, the entire Torah being one great name of G_d.
93. Because each name represents a specific Divine action or aspect, it is important to have the proper intentions and concentration when uttering them during prayer. One’s prayers thus become more proper and acceptable before Almighty G_d, as stated in Scripture, “I will uplift him, for he knows my name”. All this, of course, is in accordance with the righteousness of the individual and the degree of his understanding of these matters.
94. If a Divine conduct is destined to be revealed only in the world to come, the letters of its name are regarded as being hidden. However, if a conduct is presently revealed to a degree, the letters of its name are considered to be partially revealed.  
95. Each Sefirah has many titles by which it is called corresponding to the various facets of its conduct.
96. Sefer Yetzirah categorizes the letters of the Hebrew alphabet into three categories. The first category is comprised of the letters Aleph (א) Mem (מ) and Shin (ש). These are called “The three Mothers” and correspond to the first three Sefirot as follows;
Aleph (א) corresponds to air, and Keter (or Daat),
Mem (מ) corresponds to water, and Chochmah,
Shin (ש) corresponds to fire, and Binah.
They also represent the horizontal “pipes” connecting the Sefirot.
97. The second category is comprised of the seven double letters;
They represent the vertical “pipes”.
These are called the double letters since they can be read hard or soft as indicated by the presence or absence of a Dagesh (. ). Though Raish ר)) is not written with a Dagesh, it is nonetheless pronounced hard or soft, and although Gimmel (ג) and Dalet (ד) may possess a Dagesh, their proper pronunciation has been lost. These seven double letters represent the seven lower Sefirot, Chesed, Gevurah, Tiferet, Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Malchut, and are therefore pronounced hard and soft corresponding to Chesed (Kindness) and Rachamim (Mercy).
The third category of letters consists of the twelve remaining letters, which represent the diagonal “pipes”:
The twenty-two letters represent twenty-two primary creative forces which are expressions of the ten Sefirot. All subsequent conducts and forces arise through combinations of these. There are two hundred and thirty one possible two letter combinations. These are called “The two hundred and thirty-one Gates”. Two hundred and thirty-one units are in forward order, indicating kindness, and two hundred and thirty-one units are in reverse order, indicating judgment.
 Midrash Rabbah, Shemot, Parasha 3.
 A lunar year consists of 354 days. The 40 days between Rosh Chodesh Elul and Yom Kippur are days of Divine judgment. The remaining 314 days, during which judgment is suspended, are the numerical value of the Divine name Shaddai (ש-ד-י).
 Shemot 34:6
 Shemot 3:14
 Rashi, Bereshit 32:30 based on Midrash Rabbah, Bereshit, Parsha 78.
 See Etz Chaim, Shaar HaShemot. Also see Nefesh HaChaim, Gate 3, Chapter 3.
 YHVH indicates mercy while Elokim indicates judgment. The quality of Binah is primarily merciful but since discernments begin to arise in it (for the purpose of ultimate goodness) its essential name is YHVH, with the vowel points of Elokim.
 Since it represents the minute revelation of Keter in this world, it contains the first two letters of EHEYEH ׁ(אה)which is its concealed aspect, and the last two letters of YHVH (וה) representing its revealed aspect.
 Since it inclines toward kindness.
 See Zohar, Vayikra pg. 10b-11a. Also see Sefer Yetzirah, Part 6, Mishnah 6 and the comments of the GRA there.
 Tanya, Shaar HeYichud EvHaEmunah, Chapter 4.
 GRA Heichalot, Zohar Pekudei, Heichal 2.
 GRA Sifra D’Tznoota, Chapter 2, Pg. 20a.
 See #115
 According to the GRA, since Shvah represents judgment it should be pronounced quickly.
 The sefirah of Malchut has no vowels since Malchut, being the last sefirah, has no light of its own, but rather, only receives from the sefirot that are above it.
 See Etz Chaim, Shaar HaShemot, Chapters 1 and 3.
 See Etz Chaim, Shaar HaShemot, Chapter 1.
 According to the GRA in his commentary on Sefer Yetzirah, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1, the Divine name of Mah (מה) which has the numerical value of 45, is the Shem HaMeforash (The articulated name). It is spelled as follows: יו”ד ה”א וא”ו ה”א.
 The Midrash Pley’ah states, “Why are three levels straight-forward and one reversed? Because the signet of the Holy One, blessed be He, is אמת-Truth. The holy MaHaRaSH of Astropolia explains that this Midrash refers to the four expansions of the name YHVH. The first three are written in their proper order with the greater value preceding the lesser value, as follows: AV (ע”ב) > 70 & 2 = 72, SAG (ס”ג) > 60 & 3 = 63, MAH (מ”ה) > 40 & 5 = 45. Accordingly, the proper form of the expansion of the Divine name of 52 would seem to be NAV (נ”ב) > 50 & 2 = 52. However, we find that this name is reversed to read BAN (ב”ן) > 2 & 50 = 52. This is because the signet of the Holy One, blessed be He, is (אמת) Emet-Truth. The numerical value of the word אמת-Emet-Truth is 441 as follows: א=1 מ=40 ת=400 =441. Its “Reduced Gematria, which is the value of the letters, minus the zeros, is 9, as follows: א=1 מ=4 ת=4 =9. So too, the “Reduced Gematria” of these Divine names equals 9 as follows: AV (ע”ב) > 7 & 2 = 9, SAG (ס”ג) 6 & 3 = 9, MAH (מ”ה) 4 & 5 = 9. Now, if the name of 52 would be spelled in its (seemingly) proper order, its “Reduced Gematria” would only be 7, as follows: NAV (נ”ב) > 5 & 2 = 7. However, since the numerical value of a “Final Nun” (ן) is 700, when the letters of this Divine name are reversed, its “Reduced Gematria” also equals 9, as follows: BAN (ב”ן) > 2 & 7 = 9, which is also the “Reduced Gematria” of the word אמת-Emet-Truth. It is for this reason that the letters of this name are reversed.
 The GRA once asked Rabbi Kalonimus Kalman of Tzus, “Since the correct grammatical form of the Divine name of 52 would be Nav (נ”ב), with the number of greater value preceding the number of lesser value, in which the letter Nun (נ) only equals 5 in “Reduced Gematria”, then of what value is it to forceably reverse the form in order to change the numerical value?” Rabbi Kalonimus responded, “Actually, in its deeper sense, the Nun (נ) of of this Divine name is essentially a “Final Nun” (ן) rather than a simple Nun (נ). As known, the name of 52 (ב”ן) has double the numerical value of the Divine name YHVH. YHVH=26×2=52. If we count up the number 26 adding all the numbers together, we arrive at the sum total of 351, as follows: 1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+21+22+23+24+25+26=351.
Now, the Divine name of 52 is twice 26. Double 351 equals 702. (2×351=702) which is the numerical value of the name of 52, BAN (ב”ן) when it is spelled with a final Nun (ן) as follows: ב=2 ן=700=702. Therefore, is value in “Reduced Gematria” is 2+7=9, which is the value of the word אמת-Emet-Truth in “Reduced Gematria”. From this we see that, actually, the appropriate form of the Divine name of 52 is Ban (ב”ן) rather than Nav (נ”ב). [Note that the reduced value of 351 is also 9. (3+5+1=9)]
 See #29,50, 51, & 52 for an explanation of the Partzufim.
 See Sefer Yetzirah, Chapter 3, Also see Chapter 2:13 of this book.
 The Vav of of the Divine name SAG represents Zeir Anpin in the potential or “embryonic” state within Binah. In Kabbalistic terminology this is called Iboor Ima-The pregnancy of Mother.
 Zeir Anpin, which is represented by the letter Vav (ו) in the Divine name YHVH, is the aspect of mercy since both its lights and vessels are composed of YHVH. The name YHVH always indicates mercy. So too, the letter Alef (א) indicated mercy since it is composed of two letters Yud (י) and a Vav (ו). Two Yuds and a Vav have the numerical value of 26 which equals the numerical value of the name YHVH.
 See #20
 See #34
 See #35
 See Etz Chaim, at the beginning of Shaar Tanta. Also see Nefesh HaChaim, Gate 3, Chapter 16 in the notes. Also see Klach Pitchei Chochmah #31. Also see the commentary of the GRA on Sefer Yetzirah, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1, Ophan 3.
 See Tanya, Part 2, Shaar HaYichud VeHaEmunah, Chapter 1 on the 231 gates backwards and forwards.
 See GRA on Sefer Yetzirah, Chapter 1, Mishnah 13 and Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaLulav, Chapter 3 concerning the waving of the lulav. Also see Siddur HaAriZal, Kavanot HaLulav (toward the end). Also see Pri Etz Chaim pg.627-628 and Arba Meot Kesef Shekel pg. 36. Also see Shaar HaKavanot, Inyan Sukkot pg. 309-310.
 See Etz Chaim HaChadashim, Shaar HaShemot, Chapter 5.
 This principle does not necessarily apply solely to the straight forward spelling of the name, but may also apply to the straight forward ordering of the Divine attributes correlating to the specific letters.
 See Mishnat Chasidim, Masechet Shemot, Chapter 1. Also see Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaBerachot, Chapter 7.
 See Zohar toward the end of the book of Shemot. See Rashi, Tractate Sukka, Page 45a. Also see Pardes Rimonim by Rabbeinu Moshe Cordovero, Shaar Pratei HaShemot, Chapter 5.
 See Zohar, Idra Rabba, Page 141.
 See Klach Pitchei Chochmah, Chapter 8:13. Also see Shaarei Orah of Rabbeinu Yosef Gikatillia, beginning of Chapter 1.
 See Kinat HaShem Tzvaot, Part 1.
 See Klach Pitcei Chochmah, #18.
 Because the name E-H-E-Y-E-H (א’ה’י’ה), which represents Keter, will only be revealed in “The world to come”, each of its letters is regarded as being totally hidden. However the name E-H-V-H (א’ה’ו’ה), which represents Daat, is considered to be partially revealed since it represents the minute revelation of Keter as it is in “This world”. It therefore is comprised of the first two letters of the concealed aspect, E-H (א’ה) and the last two letters of the revealed aspect, V-H (ו’ה).
 See #24 and #25.
 Many of the Divine names are explained in the ten chapters of Shaarei Ohra of Rabbeinu Yosef Gikatillia. Rabbeinu Moshe Cordovero cites many of them in his book Pardes Rimonim, Chapter Archei HaKinuyim and towards the end of his book Ohr Ne’erav. Also see the book Al Ha-Ilan.
 See #46
 Since these represent the “System of Justice”, they also possess kindness, as indicated by the soft pronunciation of these letters. Mercy is indicated by the hard pronunciation of the letters and judgment is indicated by the letter itself. All twenty-two letters represent the paths by which the ten sefirot are connected and inter-included. The “Three Mothers” (א’מ’ש) represent the horizontal paths. The seven double letters (ב’ג’ד’כ’פ’ר’ת) represent the vertical paths and the twelve simple letters (ה’ו’ז’ח’ט’י’ל’נ’ס’ע’צ’ק) represent the diagonal paths.
 These two letter combinations are the primary foundational roots of the Hebrew language. However, for actual language to occur there must be three letter roots. Being that almost all words in the Hebrew language are made up of three letter roots, we see that the two letter combinations are the “Roots of the roots”.
 See GRA on Sefer Yetzirah. Also see VaYakhel Moshe.