Lulav V’Arava 5666
The Holy Rabbi Sholom Dovber of Lubavitch
Translated by Rabbi Shimon Markel
Edited by Rabbi Amiram Markel
The Mishnah states, “The waving of the Lulav and willow was performed for six or seven days. Now, how was the Lulav waved for seven days? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, the Lulav was waved for seven days; however if it fell on a different day of the week it was waved for only six.” In other words, on the first day of the festival the commandment of Lulav superseded the Shabbat within the borders of Israel, but if it fell on a different day it did not supersede the Shabbat. Now, the above was only true during the time of the Holy Temple. However, after the destruction of the Holy Temple, even if the first day of the festival falls out on Shabbat it does not supersede the Shabbat. The Talmud provides the reason for this prohibition; that is, because of the decree of Rabbah who said, “It is a restrictive measure lest a person takes his Lulav in his hand and goes to an expert to learn, thereby carrying it four cubits through a public domain.”
Now, we must understand why the sages saw fit to uprooted a positive biblical commandment on the basis of such a slight possibility? Additionally, when it comes to Lulav, aside for carrying, there is not much of a possibility of transgressing an actual prohibition. In this respect, the mitzvah of Lulav is dissimilar to the blowing of the Shofar, which is a skill. In contrast, except for carrying, the mitzvah of Lulav does not constitute any form of forbidden work (melachah), as discussed by Tosefot in Tractate Rosh HaShanah. This being the case, why did they uproot a mitzvah on the basis of such a slight possibility?
Now, as known, the Sukkah represents the aspect of the encompassing lights (Makifim), as it states, “And the Sukkah shall be for shade in the day time etc.” Similarly it states, “When the walls are up to twenty cubits high a person sits in the shade of the Sukkah.” We therefore must understand the matter of the encompassing aspect of the Sukkah. Additionally, as known, optimally, the rite of Lulav should specifically be performed in the Sukkah, so we must understand the relationship of the Lulav and Sukkah to each other. Additionally, it states regarding the Sukkah, “You shall dwell (sit-Teishvu) in Sukkahs for seven days.” However, as known, the encompassing lights of Makif do not dwell or become settled (Hityashvut). If so, what is the meaning of “dwelling” in Sukkahs?
In order to understand this, we must first preface with what was previously explained regarding the verse, “To every end I have seen a beginning,” which refers to the revelations within the order of the “chaining down of the worlds” which are limited. That is, there is a cessation and end to their being drawing down. The automatic outcome of this is, “I have seen a Ketz” – meaning a beginning. This is because their beginning follows the first tzimtzum-restraint. They are therefore in the category of “up until and including.” This being the case, from whatever level of consciousness a person has attained, he can perceive the next, higher level and grasp that it too is limited and has an end.
Now, Ibn Yechia explains this verse as follows, “To every end I have seen a beginning’ – this means, “to every pleasure and delight.” Igeret HaKodesh, epistle seventeen, similarly explains, “‘To every end-Tichlah (תכלה) refers to the expiry of the soul – (כלות) Kallot HaNefesh. In other words I have seen a beginning, end and limitation to the expiry and yearning of the soul. However, the continuation of the verse, “Your mitzvah is exceedingly broad” means that the pleasure inherent in the mitzvot is unlimited.” In Midrash Rabba Bereishit, chapter ten, it states, “‘To every end – everything is limited, the heavens and earth are limited, (that is, all the pleasures in the heavens and earth are limited), except for one thing that has no limits. What is that one thing? It is Torah.”
As known, the explanation of the matter is that the faculty of “pleasure” is the loftiest of all of the encompassing lights of the soul. This is in accordance with the statement; “There is nothing loftier than pleasure,” because pleasure even transcends the power of desire. It is clearly observable that pleasure is the cause of desire and that the reason a person has a desire for any given thing is because of the pleasure of it. Without the pleasure in the thing itself, there is no desire for it. This being the case, pleasure transcends desire and is its cause.
The same principle applies to all the powers of the soul, such as the soul-power of insight (Chochmah). It too is dependent upon pleasure, as in the the dictum, “A person should always study what his heart desires (Chafetz),” and as known, the word Chafetz (desire), specifically refers to a desire that is pleasurable. Specifically as a result of the pleasure he will have insight and bring forth novel ideas on the subject, as explained elsewhere. Similarly, we observe that a person will have an essential delight in something (such as building his home etc.) especially when it follows the dictates of his insight. This is because his insight goes according to the pleasure he has in it, as explained elsewhere. In the same way, all of the soul-powers are dependent upon the pleasure of them and the pleasure is automatically drawn out to illuminate them etc. Nevertheless, the light of the pleasure that illuminates all the soul-powers is only a glimmer of the pleasure. Because of this there are changes and varying degrees of it.
For as known, an essence is indivisible and does not spread out of its essential self. Hence, the essential self of the soul as it is in essence, does not spread forth or divide into its individual powers. Now, in the event that there is a drawing forth from the essence of the soul, it is drawn out and illuminates as it essentially is – equal in all its particular powers. For example, when at a time of great joy there is a revelation of the aspect of the Yechidah level of the soul, such as on the wedding of an only son or the like; at such time the aspect of the Yechidah of the soul, including all its powers and faculties, from the intellectual powers to the powers of speech and action, become revealed and the soul radiates equally in all of them, with great strength and revelation, as discussed elsewhere.
Now, although this is a revelation of the hidden powers of the soul, as described elsewhere, nevertheless, at such a time, these hidden powers manifest within the revealed powers, because even then, he conceptualizes with the essential power of his intellect specifically according to the light of the intellect in his brain. This is because the power of intellect concealed in the soul is not in a state of intellect at all, as known and discussed elsewhere. In contrast, in the aforementioned revelation it indeed is in a state of the existence of revealed intellect, only that there is an illumination and revelation of the essential light of the soul in the strength of its flow, thus giving him the capability of conceptualizing hidden and wondrous matters, which he would not otherwise be capable of conceptualizing.
In Addition, everything he conceptualizes at such a time comes in a manner of the actual comprehension of the essential brilliance of the concept, as it is. This is as explained elsewhere in the discourse entitled “V’Chol HaAm Ro’im” of the year 5665. This same principle applies to all the other powers, including the power of speech. It manifests within the revealed power of speech and so he speaks etc. In other words, the concealed powers manifest within the revealed powers, except that the power and strength of the soul illuminates in them equally.
It is similarly so in regard to true repentance from the depths of the heart, at which time the essential light of the soul radiates in a revealed manner. For as known, in regard to the service of the mind and heart, the revelations that come forth from the powers of the Divine soul are only the aspect of the revealed powers of intellect and emotions. That is, he will conceptualize and contemplate in his intellect, and will arouse love and awe, which is the revelation of the powers of the Divine soul, but only the revealed powers.
The matter of repentance, however, arouses the essence of the soul, and he is “moved from his place” because of the constrictions caused by the sins and transgressions that soiled his soul during the course of the year, heaven forbid. Additionally, in the ten days of repentance, which is a time when the “luminary comes close to the sparks”, he considers his great distance in his heart, in that he has removed himself from G-dliness, which touches him to the depths of his soul. (In other words, he is touched both by his great distance, in that he finds himself entrenched in the klipot-husks and sitra achara-other side, that are “despised by Hashem,” heaven forbid, and by the blemish that he has caused both above, in the spiritual realm, and below in his soul, as explained elsewhere.)
(This is especially so during the ten days of repentance, at which time the luminary is close. During this time the matter touches him to a greater degree in the innerness of his heart. This is similarly so at other auspicious times, such as during the midnight prayer of Tikkun Chatzot, or prior to prayer etc.)
He becomes embittered by this in his soul, to the point that his very essence is greatly moved by a powerful bitterness. This can be compared to a very deep internal physical pain, G-d forbid, which causes the essence of the soul to be stirred and moved. It is similarly so with a true penitent, that when the matter touches him to the inner depths of his heart, the essence of his soul will be stirred and moved by great bitterness. The result is that there is an automatic drawing and desire to come close to G-dliness, in that he is moved in his entire being, literally to the point of expiring.
He is not necessarily even conscious of this “drawing forth of the soul”, because, at this point, he is only aware of the bitterness and anguish at the sense of his distance. Therefore, he is not necessarily aware of being drawn close to G-dliness (because this is the aspect of the “inner, unheard voice”, which is also called “the cry of the heart” as discussed elsewhere). Nonetheless, in truth his Divine soul is very strongly drawn to G-dliness, but it is unfelt. This is because this “drawing” is caused by his great sense of distance, in that his current state of being brings him great anguish. This causes him to flee from evil and death. The automatic result is that he flees to the place of life. However, the main thrust here is fleeing from evil and death.
In addition, his being drawn to G-dliness is like a person who despairs in his soul, which makes it all the stronger. Now there are two matters in this, but only one applies here. This is because at times, a person despairs specifically because of his sensitivity to the Divine light. He feels its greatness, which causes him to despair at the impossibility of attaining such a lofty level.
However, here, the opposite is true. He does not feel the greatness of G-dliness at all. Rather, he is only aware of his own lowliness and how he is altogether disconnected from G-dliness. Because of despair he questions how closeness to G-dliness could be possible, since he realizes his lowly stature and how far he has strayed from HaShem. This causes him great anguish which moves him to be drawn to G-dliness with even greater strength. However, it is the despair itself over his distance that causes the great and overpowering anguish and because of this he is unaware that in actuality he is being drawn to G-dliness.
Now, there is a similar aspect of arousal to repentance which is not due to the constrictions of one’s sins, but is rather because of closeness to the Infinite Light (Ohr Ain Sof), i.e. the “closeness of the luminary”. This arouses the soul to draw close to G-dliness. Now, this too is not because one feels the Infinite Light and is therefore drawn to it, because then it would be a drawing forth and yearning known as the “desire of the heart” which is a level of service attained through intellect and reason. That is, because he feels the Infinite Light, therefore he is drawn to it. Here however, he does not feel the revelation of the Infinite Light, because this is an arousal of the soul as it transcends intellect and reason. Rather, it is caused by the closeness of the luminary to the spark.
(Actually, relative to the true transcendent essential Self of HaShem, all are considered to be sinners and transgressors in relation to Him, as explained elsewhere. This is why in the ten days of repentance all of us, regardless of our spiritual level, confess, “We have sinned, we have betrayed etc.”)
Now in the aforementioned revelation of the aspect of the essence of the soul, the essence illuminates all the other faculties equally. The proof for this is from the fact that when the essential light is revealed all the various faculties and emotions literally undergo a transformation of their essential nature. As is clearly observable in a true penitent, his very being changes from one extreme to the other and he no longer desires all the things he previously lusted for, whatsoever. As known, a penitent must be one who says, “I do not want,” and indeed, this is how he is; he does not want anything at all. His only desire is for G-dliness. In addition, this desire is at full strength. He wants G-d alone and is sensitive to all things that are G-dly. This is because this matter touches him greatly on a very personal level and as known, a person is sensitive to whatever touches him personally. He becomes sensitive to all G-dly matters that previously he had no feeling for whatsoever.
Similarly, his intellectual powers undergo an essential transformation, because the axioms and basis of his intellectual makeup take on a different form. In other words, aside for the changes to his reasoning and grasp, there are foundational principles, such as primary axioms, that he now accepts as true within his intellect. The foundational principles that are from the side of holiness and the foundational principles that are from the side of kelipah-husks and sitra achara-the other side, are different from each other and therefore, in a true penitent the foundational principles of his intellect undergo a transformation.
We therefore find that all of his various faculties undergo an essential change and each will be imbued with great strength and vitality. Even the physical manifestation of his faculties will be different, so that the mitzvot he performs will also be with great strength and abundant vitality. This is similar to how it is that on Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, every Jew fulfills the mitzvot differently than how he would the rest of the year. This is because on such occasions the essential light of his soul even illuminates the aspect of his physical actions.
Now, all of the above is the result of the illumination and revelation of the essential light of the soul. However, in regard to the aspect of revelations of the soul as they radiate within the revealed powers, it only is a glimmer of the actual essence of the soul. Regarding this glimmer, the more it is drawn forth and grasped in the revealed powers, the more concealed it becomes, thus not radiating in such a revealed manner.
This may be understood by something that may clearly be observed. When a person has insight into any given concept, the initial grasp comes from the aspect of the power to conceptualize in his soul (Koach HaMaskeel). At that level it does not yet bear the characteristics of being intellect altogether, as explained previously. Nevertheless, insight is revealed from there. This is the first revelation of light in the revealed intellect. This may be compared to a “flash of lightning” because at this point it has not yet settled in the vessel of his mind. Rather, it only hovers above his mind in a state that is not yet fully grasped. Though he already knows the matter, he only knows it generally, rather than truly grasping it in the vessel of his mind.
The reason is because the illumination of Chochmah-insight comes primarily from the light of the intellect, rather than the intellect itself. Because of this he cannot fully grasp or express it in letters, whereas it is specifically through the letters that the matter can be grasped. This is because this primary revelation is of the light rather than the intellect and it is impossible for light to be grasped through letters. Only afterwards does the conceptual point come to be grasped and understood. This happens specifically when the light becomes concealed. Only then can the intellect be felt and grasped and all the details of the concept expanded upon and comprehended in and of themselves. The same is true of the concept as a whole; it comes to actually be grasped and comprehended in the vessel of the mind. However, we clearly observe is that when the concept comes to be grasped and comprehended, the light of the concept becomes concealed, whereas the intellect of the concept becomes felt and apparent to a greater degree. The more that the concept is grasped, the more the light becomes concealed.
The same is true of the light of the pleasure which illuminates the intellect. At the initial point of insight, which comes like a flash of lightening, there is a much greater radiance and revelation of the pleasure. This is similar to what it states, “The face of Rabbi Elazar shone when he discovered a new Tosefta.” This pleasure comes from the essence of the concept, which is not the case once it is grasped in a way of comprehension. This is because although the revelation of Atik is in Binah-comprehension, it is only because in Binah-comprehension it becomes more pronounced and felt. Nevertheless, the primary revelation of pleasure is in Chochmah-insight, and within Chochmah-insight itself the primary pleasure is from the essential light which radiates, whereas in Binah-comprehension, the pleasure is only from the aspect of the intellect.
We therefore find that regarding the general revelation of the light of the soul, particularly the revelation of pleasure; it is not equal throughout all the various faculties of the soul. In the faculty of Chochmah-insight there is greater revelation than in the faculty of Binah-comprehension. In addition, the revelation of pleasure in Chochmah-insight, which flashes like a lightning-bolt, only takes place during the actual moment of insight. With the slightest passage of time, the concept “ages” for him, so to speak, and the pleasure dissipates. This is all the more so regarding the pleasure of comprehension and grasp. It too dissipates shortly. From this, we understand that the pleasure drawn into the faculties is only a glimmer of the essential pleasure.
This is similarly so regarding the service of G-d (Avoda). That is, when a person contemplates (Hitbonenut) and directs his contemplation towards G-dliness and the greatness of the Infinite Light (Ohr Ain Sof), blessed is He, he will be aroused with love and awe in his heart in a revealed manner. Alternatively, his love and awe may remain hidden in the contemplation itself, for he is delighting in the G-dliness that he grasps. Nevertheless, this is only a glimmer of the Infinite Light (Ohr Ain Sof), blessed is He, for as known, whatever comes into grasp is distant from the Essence, because regarding the essential Self of the Infinite Light it states, “No thought at all can grasp Him.” Therefore, whatever illumination there is in a way of comprehension is only the aspect of a glimmer of it.
Even regarding the aspect of the “sight” of Chochmah-insight, there is not truly an illumination from the essential Self of the Infinite Light. The proof for this is from Moshe who corresponds to the aspect of Ma”H of Chochmah-insight, as he stated, “V’Nachnu Ma’H – and what are we.” For as written, “And the man Moshe was very humble, more than any man on the face of the earth”, because he was in the state of the essential Bitul-negation of self of Chochmah-insight. Nevertheless, he requested of HaShem, “Please show me Your glory,” to which he was answered, “You cannot see My face… you shall see My back, but My face shall not be seen.” This is because whatever is revealed in the aspect of the “sight” of Chochmah-insight is not the aspect of the essential Self of HaShem, as He is.
From this we may understand how it is above in G-dliness, that the aspect of the radiance of the Infinite Light (Ohr Ain Sof) which radiates within the ten Sefirot of the world of Atzilut-emanation is only a mere glimmer. For although it states in Etz Chaim that within Chochmah-insight there is a radiance of the Infinite Light in a way of closeness, this only refers to the fact that the Infinite Light radiates within Chochmah-insight more than how it radiates within Binah-comprehension. Nevertheless, it is not an illumination of the aspect of the essential Self. It is for this reason that there are differences between the revelations in Chochmah-insight and the revelations in Binah-comprehension. For, when there is an illumination from the aspect of the essential Self of the Infinite Light (Atzmut Ohr Ain Sof), He illuminates them all equally. This accords with what was explained above in the analogy of the soul, and it is similarly so above in G-dliness. For example, in the “future to come” when there will be a revelation of the essential Self, the revelation will be equal throughout all the chaining down of the worlds.
This then, it the meaning of the verse, “I have seen a beginning to every end”; which refers to all the pleasures throughout creation. For the source of the worlds is from the aspect of Chochmah-insight, as it states, “In Chochmah-insight You have made them all,” and it is the beginning of the chaining down of the worlds. This is as stated in the Zohar regarding the matter of the verse “And Elokim said, let us make man,” “In the entire act of creation, Abba-father (Chochmah) said to Imma-mother (Binah) etc.” Regarding all of this, “I have seen a beginning,” meaning that it is all in an aspect of measure and limitation. This is because it is only a glimmer from the aspect of the supernal pleasure, which manifests within the chaining down of the worlds (Hishtalshelut).
Similarly, the general desire for all of creation is only the aspect of the externality of His will, because, as known, the entire matter of the inner desire for creation is solely for the purpose of Torah and Mitzvot. This is like the statement, “The word ‘Bereishit-In the beginning’ refers to the two things that are called “Reishit-primary.” These are the Jewish people who are called “Reishit-primary” and the Torah which is called Reishit-primary.” This refers to the primary, inner intention of creation, while the desire for creation itself is external to this. It is therefore readily understood that the aspect of the pleasure in the desire for creation is only a glimmer of the essential pleasure. This is not the case with the desire for Torah and Mitzvot, which is the inner essential desire. Therefore, within this desire is a manifestation of the aspect of the essential supernal pleasure.
This, then, is the meaning of “I have seen a beginning to every end.” That is, every aspect of pleasure and expiry, referring even to the G-dly pleasure experienced by the souls, comes with measure and limit. This is true whether it is the G-dly delight of the souls in the garden of Eden with their innumerable ascents from level to level, as previously discussed, or whether it is the delight of the souls here below which is achieved through the service of HaShem through hitbonenut-contemplation of G-dliness and the “sight” of Chochmah-insight. The same is true of the revelation of pleasure which radiates within the chaining down of the worlds. They all are in an aspect of measure and limit, for they are only a glimmer of the pleasure.
However, the verse continues, “Your commandment is exceedingly broad.” This is because the aspect of the pleasure within the desire for the mitzvot is from the inner, essential pleasure which completely transcends the pleasure and desire for the chaining down of the worlds. This is especially so regarding the physical performance or “actualization” of the mitzvot, since “the end action arose first in thought.” It is specifically this desire for the actual fulfillment of the mitzvot which is the ultimate, inner intention in the inner aspect of HaShem’s essential Self, blessed is He. It is therefore specifically through this that the inner essential pleasure is drawn forth, as it states, “It brings satisfaction before Me that I commanded and My will is fulfilled.” This “satisfaction before Me”, refers to the inner, essential pleasure and comes about specifically when “My will is fulfilled” in actuality.
It is for this reason that in the “future to come” there will be a true revelation of that which is drawn forth, which currently is accomplished by the service of Jews when they fulfill the mitzvot. Moreover, this revelation will specifically be here below. The truth is that the actual fulfillment of the mitzvot creates a vessel for G-dliness even in our times. However, the revelation of it will be in the “future to come”. This is because there will then be a revelation here below of the essential Self of the Infinite Light (Atzmut Ohr Ain Sof). In other words, there will be a revelation of the simple essential pleasure that is manifest within the fulfillment of the mitzvot.
From the above we may understand why those who perform the mitzvot are called “Those who actualize the will of the Omnipresent.” At first glance this statement is not understood. Why are they called “those who actualize the will of the Omnipresent”? Even prior to the giving of the Torah was there not already a drawing forth and actualization of the Supernal Will through the creation and coming into being of the worlds?
This is as stated, “Bereishit Bara-In the beginning, G-d created etc.,” which Onkelos translated as, “Bekadmin Bara” which refers to the aspect of Keter-crown. And as known, Keter-crown refers to the aspect of desire, as in the verse, “You crown him with desire, like a shield.” Similarly it states, “I have said, ‘The world will be built with kindness,'” which refers to a “saying” (Amirah) in His will, as stated elsewhere. Likewise we say, “Blessed is He who said (Amar), and the world came into being etc,” or in the words of the Zohar, “When it arose in His will to create the worlds,” or, “in the beginning of the arousal of the King’s will to rule etc.” Similarly, in the words of Etz Chaim it states, “When it arose in His simple will etc.”
From all of the above verses and references we see that there already was a drawing forth of His will at the time of the creation of the worlds. If this is the case, why then are Jews referred to as “those who actualize the will of the Omnipresent” through their fulfillment of the mitzvot?
An additional question that arises according to the above statement is that immediately before performing the mitzvot we say, “This is with the intention of unifying the Holy One blessed is He with His Shechinah-Indwelling Presence.” Now, it was previously explained that this refers to the unification of how HaShem transcends all the worlds (Sovev Kol Almin) and how He pervades all the worlds (Memale Kol Almin), which is accomplished through the fulfillment of the mitzvot. However, since there was already a drawing forth of His desire to bring about worlds and since desire corresponds to the aspect of His transcendence (Sovev), there already was a unification of the Holy One blessed is He and His Shechinah-Indwelling Presence, at the time of creation itself. (This is the meaning of “Abba-father (Chochmah) said to Imma-mother (Binah)” or the unification of Zeir Anpin and Malchut, all of which refer to the unification of the Holy One blessed is He and His Indwelling Presence (Shechinah). Moreover, although it is known that the actualization of creation is brought about by the aspect of how HaShem pervades the worlds (Memale), nevertheless, this is specifically through the power of how He transcends the worlds (Sovev), which is what dictates and gives power to the inner, pervading lights, as explained elsewhere.) This being the case, what then is this matter of the unification of the Holy One blessed is He and His Indwelling Presence (Shechinah) which is accomplished specifically through the fulfillment of the mitzvot?
Rather, the explanation of the matter is that in truth even now we need to draw forth the aspect of the desire for the creation of the worlds, through an arousal from below. This is as stated in Etz Chaim, that initially the arousal was “because He delights in kindness,” but afterwards this matter is dependent upon an arousal from below. This is because the essential Self of the Infinite Light transcends all Sefirot and attributes, as stated, “He is One, but not a numerical one of the ten Sefirot whatsoever… He is wise but not with a knowable wisdom… He is not of any of these attributes at all etc.” (As explained elsewhere, when we call Him wise, blessed is He, it is only to remove the notion that He is lacking wisdom, but it is not to say the He is wise in an aspect of actual wisdom which is called a “knowable wisdom.”)
Now, just as He is completely removed and transcends the aspects of insight, comprehension or the emotional attributes, He likewise is removed from the aspect of desire. For even the arousal of His desire to create comes about only through a tzimtzum-constriction. As we see that the word “Ratzon-desire (רצון)” shares the same letters as “Tzinor-constricting pipe (צנור).” Hence, it too is a completely novel creation relative to the Infinite Light (Ohr Ain Sof). This is similar to what we state, “In His kindness He renews the act of creation every day, constantly.” That is, the drawing forth of His desire to create and bring the worlds into being at every moment is an aspect of novelty and renewal, because relative to His essential Self it is novel and requires renewal, because it has no relationship to Him whatsoever. This accords with what is explained in the discourse entitled “And the entire nation saw,” of the year 5665. It is therefore necessary for us to constantly draw forth this aspect of His desire anew, that He should constrict Himself, so to speak, and desire to create the worlds and bring them into existence.
This is similar to how on Rosh HaShanah we renew the drawing forth of the desire for the creation of the worlds, which, in general, is the matter of arousing His desire for kingship, for “there is no king without a nation.” This is because on Rosh HaShanah everything reverts to its primordial source, and the aspect of the essential Self of the Infinite Light becomes completely removed from the aspect of desire. For this reason, on Rosh HaShanah it is necessary to draw forth the desire for kingship and the existence of the worlds. This is accomplished through accepting the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven with one’s very essence and through the recital of the ten verses of kingship. In other words, it is a “remembrance of the first day,” on which creation was brought about “because He delights in kindness,” and we draw forth this desire anew on Rosh HaShanah. The same is true throughout the whole year for, “In His kindness, He renews the act of creation every day, constantly.” We therefore need to draw forth this aspect of His desire, constantly.
This is accomplished through fulfilling Torah and Mitzvot, as it states, “The Holy One, blessed is He, made a condition with all of creation etc.” Similarly it states, “These are the generations of the heavens and the earth,” regarding which the sages comment that the heavens and earth exist, “In the merit of ‘These are the names of the children of Israel’ and in the merit of ‘These are the mitzvot.'” It is for this reason that Torah scholars are called “builders,” for they are involved in the construction of the world. On the simplest level, this is because it is through their involvement in Torah study that they draw forth the desire to create the worlds and it is through this that the worlds are sustained. This is the simple explanation of the statement, “The righteous sustain the world which was created through ten utterances.”
It is explained elsewhere that the drawing forth of vitality to sustain the worlds which “are renewed in His kindness,” is through doing business honestly and faithfully. This is because the creation of the worlds is called “Melachah-work (מלאכה),” and it is for this reason that “Melachah-work (מלאכה)” has the same numerical value as the name “El Ado-nay (אל אדני).” This is because the name “El Ado-nay (אל אדני)” relates to actualization, and corresponds to the aspect of the work of creating the worlds which are renewed by His kindness. The drawing forth of this renewal is accomplished through doing our business dealings faithfully and honestly, for this too is called “Melachah-work.” This is known from what the prophet Yonah was asked, “What is your Melachah-work” about which the commentaries explain that they asked, “Do you do your business honestly and faithfully?” In other words, when one conducts his business and does his work with honesty and faith, so that there is not a shred of sin, cheating or theft, heaven forbid, he causes the Infinite Light to be drawn forth into the aspect of “Melachah-work.”
Now, this can be explained according to what is written elsewhere, that there are two kinds of “Melachah-work” corresponding to two types of servants. The first servant performs lowly work or tasks, such as chopping wood and the like. These are tasks that are below the dignity and honor of the master to do himself, like chopping wood or setting the table and the like. When the servant performs these tasks, he is serving his master by performing tasks that the master himself would not lower himself to do. This is called a poor servant, who takes pleasure from the labor of his hands and the toil of his work. The work is lowly, but it is fitting to his stature and being, and at fitting times he is compensated for his work.
The second servant is one who performs refined and intellectual tasks, things that the master himself would do, such as being involved in earning a livelihood by managing the business, cutting diamonds and precious stones, and the like. These are honorable professions that enrich the master. Therefore, when the servant performs these tasks he is called “his servant,” for he accomplishes the work that the master himself would otherwise do and completes it in place of his master.
This analogy may be applied to understand the service of G-d as well. This is because the creation and existence of the worlds is from the aspect of the supernal speech of Malchut of Atzilut, as it states, “And Elokim said,” and, “The world was created with ten utterances.” This is because the speech of the Holy One blessed is He, is considered to be an action. This may be compared to lowly work, such as chopping trees, about which it states, “It is not fitting for the King to be involved in matters of a simpleton”, for it would involve lowering himself greatly. This is the meaning of the rabbinical adage, “In a place that you find HaShem’s greatness that is where you find His humility.” This is why a servant that is compensated for his work is necessary.
(Nevertheless, one must fulfill the words of the sages, “Do not be like servants who serve their master in order to receive reward.” In other words, when it states that the toil should not be done only for reward we could say that this kind of toil could solely be to receive reward, which is not the case regarding intellectual toil. This is because intellectual toil is not for any reward, but for the toil itself. The proof is that even the master himself performs this lofty kind of toil. In contrast, with the other kind of toil, even if the servant may not be working for compensation, nonetheless, generally speaking, that kind of work is usually for reward and compensation. In other words, the work itself is not something paramount and essential, in and of itself, and if it were possible to do without it, it would not be done at all. It is therefore not of paramount importance, but rather to receive reward etc.)
This is as stated in the Zohar, (Parshat Pinchas, page two hundred and twenty three, side two) regarding the three kinds of servants mentioned in the “Prayer of David.” About this kind of toil David stated, “Save your servant…for I am poor and impoverished etc.” Initially he approaches like a beggar standing at the door, so that afterwards he may receive a reward. In other words, through the aspect of lowliness, in that he lowers himself during prayer like a beggar who has nothing of his own, he affects a response of lowliness from above in G-dliness, in that Hashem also lowers Himself, so to speak, to create and vitalize the worlds.
This is similar to accepting the yoke of the heavenly kingdom, which literally is compared to a yoke imposed upon a person. In other words, this is when a person does not truly desire it with all his being, but must force himself. That is, it specifically applies to a person for whom G-dliness is greatly concealed in his soul, in that he altogether does not become aroused by matters of G-dliness. The rectification for this is to accept the yoke of Heaven upon himself (Kabalat Ol Malchut Shamayim), specifically by force of willpower. That is, in every matter he forces himself to do the opposite of his desire. This even helps him overpower the encompassing lights of the external husks (kelipah). Though he has no feeling for G-dliness whatsoever, he does the right thing anyways, through accepting the yoke of Heaven upon himself (Kabalat Ol). However, this is compared to a poor servant, who, in and of himself, has no personal desire for G-dliness. Rather, he only beseeches, “My G-d, save your servant.” This type of service, in and of itself, is not a lofty service of paramount importance, but is simply a necessary service.
The second kind of servant is one who performs honorable tasks that the master would otherwise perform himself, such as cutting diamonds and other precious stones. He does in place of his master. This refers to drawing down G-dly revelations into the worlds by fulfilling Torah and mitzvot. This is the matter of wealth. In other words, it is not solely to vitalize and sustain the worlds, but rather, it is an aspect of wealth in that it draws down revelation of G-dliness into the worlds in excess of what is needed merely to sustain them.
This may be understood through the verse, “Your cheeks are comely with rows, your neck with beads.” The words “your neck with beads” refers to the aspect of precious stones and diamonds bound together by a thread. The thread goes through and unites them all, so that they become inseparable.
This is analogous to, “The voice is the voice of Yaakov,” which refers to the voice of Torah, “Whose foundation is in the holy mountains”, referring to the aspect of the supernal Chochmah-insight of Atzilut-emanation. It manifests within physical matters, such as the six orders of the Mishnah, which include the order of Zera’im-seeds and Mo’ed-holidays etc. This is why it is called “The pathways of Hashem,” because it is like a path or a road upon which a person travels from his place to another distant place. Likewise Torah constitutes the “travelling” of Chochmah-insight through the whole chaining down of the worlds, until it reaches this world.
This is called “the voice of Yaakov (יעקב),” which is a composite of the letter Yud-י and the word Ekev-heel-עקב. This represents the “thread” of Chochmah-insight that “threads through from the highest end to the lowest end.” In other words, it may even be found in the concluding end, which is very distant from the beginning end. The “Lowest end” refers to this world, which is called “the world of separation.” Nevertheless, the “supernal voice” is drawn down from above so that even this world is connected and unified with HaShem’s unity, blessed is He. The same is true of the mitzvot which also are called, “The ways of Hashem,” since it is through them that the Infinite Light is drawn down to manifest within physical objects, unifying them to the Infinite Light, blessed is He. (Regarding this, see Torah Ohr, in the discourse entitled “Who is like Hashem our G-d.”)
Above in G-dliness, this represents the drawing down of the Kav-line, which is called, “The precious and holy thread” because it illuminates and manifests within Chochmah of Atzilut and withinthe world of Atzilut in general, so that there can be an illumination and revelation of the Kav-line even in the worlds of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, for it is like the thread that unifies.
Now, the aspect of boring holes through the precious stones thus making it possible for them to be bound together, refers to the fact that one must make an empty space, so to speak, as in the verse, “My heart is empty within me.” That is, one must become an empty vessel in order to contain that which is drawn down from the Infinite Light, blessed is He. This is because the Infinite Light only dwells or becomes revealed in a person who has negated his own existence (Bitul B’Metziut) completely to HaShem, to the point that he literally is as nothing (Ein). He thus takes up no space at all and is not a separate something (Yesh) in and of himself. One achieves this “absence of self” (Bitul) through the “voice of Yaakov,” as it states, “the voice arouses the intention.” This refers to the level of “Kavanah-intention” of the soul, in which the soul desires to leave the sheath of the body and “gush into the bosom of her father,” with total negation of being, to become unified with the source of all life and pleasure, the Infinite Light, blessed is He.
Thus, the drawing down of vitality through doing business honestly and faithfully is like the simple servant who serves his master to receive reward. In other words, this only draws down the vitality necessary to sustain the worlds. However, through the fulfillment of Torah and mitzvot, we draw down actual revelation of G-dliness into the world.
The difference between these two kinds of labor and toil may be understood in a more refined manner, as follows: The simple toil that is like chopping wood etc., or like doing business honestly and faithfully, corresponds to the matter of “the toil of refining (Avodat HaBirurim).” This refers to the toil of gathering and assembling the sparks of G-dliness that have fallen into this “world of separation (Alma D’Pruda).” This is the meaning of the verse, “And you shall gather your grain,” as is explained elsewhere.
This is accomplished through doing one’s work or attending to one’s business in physical matters, when it is done honestly and faithfully, without the slightest hint of transgression. Through a person conducting himself honestly in his business affairs, he refines and gathers the Divine sparks that have become scattered and separated in these physical matters. This is all the more so when his intentions are for the sake of Heaven, in that his intention to make a profit is foe the purpose of giving charity, studying Torah and doing mitzvot etc. This is likewise the case when his business dealings do not obstruct his prayers or Torah study. That is, he does not become so totally consumed and absorbed in his work to the point that it impedes his spirituality. Rather, through conducting his business affairs in the proper manner he refines and uplifts the Divine sparks hidden in physical matters.
This also includes eating for the sake of Heaven. That is, though the food he eats is physical, he makes the blessings before and after eating, thus uplifting the food. Moreover, for him, the act of eating itself is for the sake of Heaven, rather than simply to satisfying his lusts. Instead, he eats only with the purpose of deriving the energy to study Torah, pray and do mitzvot in mind. This is especially true if his conscious intention while eating is specifically to derive vitality from the sparks of holiness within the food, as it states, “Not by bread alone does man live, but by everything that proceeds out of the mouth of Hashem does man live etc.” This refines the sparks that fell into physicality and uplifts them.
However, as known, this ascent is only within the worlds of Briyah-creation, Yetzirah-formation and Asiyah-action. It does not however cause an ascent of the sparks to unify them to the G-dliness of the world of Atzilut-emanation. Rather, it is only through the total negation of one’s being (Bitul B’Metziut) that there can be an ascent to Atzilut. This is as known regarding the difference between Yosef and the other tribes. The service of the other tribes was to refine the worlds of BY”A, which is the negation of the aspect of Ba”N, which only is the “negation of the something” (Bitul HaYesh). Through this type of self-negation one draws down a radiance of Atzilut into Briyah, within the chamber of the Holy of Holies of Briyah, as explained elsewhere.
In contrast, Yosef was the aspect of the negation of Ma”H, which is the aspect of the total negation of his very being. Through this he could uplift all the holy sparks so that they became actually unified with the aspect of Atzilut. Moreover, it is through this that there is a drawing down of actual revelation of Atzilut into the worlds of BY”A. It is through prayer with the “desire of the heart” (and Torah that is studied in a manner of “above to below,” as explained elsewhere) and through the fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvot, that there is a drawing down of light and revelation from above to below. This then is the meaning of the statement that the righteous sustain the world, for they draw down revelation of G-dliness and the revelation of the Kav-line which radiates within Chochmah-insight of the world of Atzilut-emanation.
Additionally, we may say that the fact that the Jewish people are called “those who actualize the will of the Omnipresent,” refers to the fact that they draw down a revealed illumination of HaShem’s will into the world. For although there is a drawing down of His will to the worlds, as in the statement, “It arose in His will to create the worlds,” nevertheless, His will does not radiate in a revealed manner. The only revelations that are drawn down are the revelations of the order of the chaining down of the worlds. However, His will, as it is, in and of itself, does not radiate in a revealed manner. However, through the service of HaShem we draw down actual revelation of His will into the world.
Now, from all of the above we may understand the matter of the Sukkah, which is the revelation of the encompassing lights (Makif) that correspond to the Schach-“thatch covering” and shade of the Sukkah. On Rosh HaShanah we draw down the desire for the worlds, referring to the “desire for kingship” that is drawn to the worlds since, “there is no king without a nation.” Therefore, there automatically is a drawing down of desire for worlds. The actual revelation, however, takes place on Sukkot. This is as stated, “Blow the shofar at the new moon, when it is covered for the day of our holiday.” For, on Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur the moon is still hidden and concealed. That is, although on Yom Kippur there is a drawing down of light, it nevertheless still remains above and is not drawn down below. Rather, the revelation below occurs on Sukkot, which takes place on the full moon and this is the meaning of “for the day of our holiday (Chageinu).” However, even then the revelation is still in a transcendent, encompassing manner (Makif). Therefore, it is specifically through the Lulav that it radiates in an inner manner (Pnimiut).
This is because the Lulav corresponds to the drawing down of Da’at into Nukvah of Zeir Anpin which is located in the chest of Zeir Anpin. In other words, it draws it down into the aspect of Keter-crown of Malchut-kingship which corresponds to the chest of Zeir Anpin etc. This is a drawing down of an inner, pervading light (Ohr Pnimi). It is because of this that the Mitzvah of Lulav should be performed in the Sukkah, so that the encompassing light (Makif) should be drawn down in an inner, pervading manner (Pnimiut).
Because of this when the first day of the holiday falls out on Shabbat, the Mitzvah of Lulav is not performed, because as known, on Shabbat there also is a drawing down of the encompassing lights in an inner manner. This is also why we do not perform the Mitzvah of Tefillin on Shabbat, because Tefillin correspond to the encompassing lights of the four parts of the mind, and this is why they are worn in a protruding manner above one’s head. On Shabbat the encompassing light (Makif) radiates in an inner, pervading manner, and therefore it is unnecessary for the Mitzvah of Lulav to be performed, for this inner illumination occurs in any event.
However, during the time of the Holy Temple they would perform the mitzvah of Lulav when the first day of the holiday fell out on Shabbat. This is because there are various levels in the encompassing lights and although on Shabbat the encompassing light radiates in an inner, pervading manner, nevertheless by performing the mitzvah of Lulav they were able to draw down a more inner and transcendent encompassing light. It is for this reason that they performed the mitzvah of Lulav even on Shabbat, in order to draw forth this loftier encompassing light. This, however, only took place during the time of the Holy Temple, because in that time they had the ability to draw down this more supernal encompassing light and it therefore took precedence over Shabbat even outside of the borders of Israel. (For the reason it was performed even outside of the borders of Israel, see what is written in Likkutei Torah, the discourse entitled “The holiday of Rosh HaShanah.”) (This was specifically the case on the first day of the holiday, for it was then that this primary revelation took place etc.)
Nowadays, however, it is not performed on Shabbat. This is because during exile (Galut) it is not possible to draw down the upper encompassing light in a way of revealed illumination. Thus, presently, this aspect cannot be drawn down by the Lulav in an inner, pervading manner. However, whatever is drawn down by the mitzvah of Lulav is drawn down anyways by Shabbat itself. Therefore, in our times we do not perform the mitzvah of Lulav on Shabbat, even if it is the first day of the holiday.
 Mishna Sukkah, beginning of Ch. 4 (Talmud Bavli, Sukkah 42b)
 Talmud Bavli, Sukkah 42b
 On the holy day of Shabbat we are forbidden from carrying anything for more than four cubits in a public domain.
 Talmud Bavli, Shabbat 117b; 131b; Rosh HaShanah 29b
 Talmud Bavli, Rosh HaShanah 29b, section entitled “Aval”
 Meorei Ohr 60:15; Torah Ohr, Miketz 24b; Likkutei Torah Netzavim 48c; Drushim L’Shmini Atzeret 84a and on; Siddur Im DA”Ch 265a and on; Sefer HaMaamarim 5629 p. 369.
 Isaiah 4:6
 Talmud Bavli, Sukkah 2a
 Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaLulav, Ch. 3; Shaar HaKavanot, beginning of Drushei Chag HaSukkot; Sidder HaArizal, Kavanot Lulav V’Na’anuav; Mishnat Chassidim, Mesechet Yemei Mitzva Sukkah, Ch. 5; Siddur Admor HaZaken, Dinei Netilat Lulav; Sefer HaMaamarim 5736, disources entitled “BaSukkot Teshvu” p. 126 and on.
 Leviticus 23:42
 In the previous discourse; Psalms 119:96
 Commentary to Chamesh Megilot and Ketuvim by Rabbi Yosef the son of David Ibn Yichia. Brought down in Ohr HaTorah Bereishit Vol. 3, p. 506a.
 Bereishit Rabba 10:1
 Sefer Yetzirah 2:7
 Talmud Bavli, Avoda Zarah 19a
 Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim 28d; 33d; Responsa of the Tzemach Tzedek, Even HaEzer Vol. 2, siman 263, p. 8c.
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5664, p. 270; 5665 p. 243; 5671 p. 6; 5672 Vol. 1, p. 91; p. 411
 Torat Chaim, VaYigash 90c and on; Hemshech 5672, Vol. 2, p. 1,116 and on.
 Moreh Nevuchim, Vol.1, Ch. 51; Torat Chaim 65a; Imrei Binah, Shaar HaKriyat Shmah, Ch. 8, p. 20a and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5653 p. 239; 5654, p. 288 and on; 5658, p. 100
 Discussed at length in Sefer HaMaamarim 5657 p. 223 and on, as well as the citations in the previous note.
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5657 p. 205 and on; 5660, p. 113 and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5665, p. 263 (which is a continuation of the referenced discourse.)
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5651, p. 40 and on
 Derech Chaim, p. 13d; 21b; 91a; Kuntres HaAvoda, end of Ch. 5; Sefer Hamaamarim 5687, p. 37
 Deuteronomy 16:22
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5665 p. 25 and on; 5703 p. 82 and on.
 Zohar Vol. 1, p. 50b; 210a
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5651, p. 8 and on; 16 and on; 5656 p. 244 and on; 5660 p. 23 and on; 5662 p. 225 and on; Hemshech 5672 Vol. 1, p. 144 and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5651 p. 75 an on; p. 212, 214 and on; 5659 p. 64
 Taamaei HaMitzvot of the Arizal, Parshat Kedoshim; Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaSelichot, Ch. 8; Siddur HaArizal before Tachanun; Derech Mitzvotecha 28a
 Earlier in this discourse.
 Tanya, Igeret HaKodesh, end of Epistle 15 (124a). Torah Ohr, Bereishit 6c; Likkutei Torah, Shlach 44d; Matot 87c; Ve’Etchanan 2d; 3c; Tetze 39a and on; Drushim L’Shmini Atzeret 85d; Torat Chaim Bereishit 10a; Noach 47d and on; Pirush HaMilot 6d; Hemshech 5672 Vol. 2, p. 1,198; Sefer HaMaamarim 5689 p. 130.
 Igrot Kodesh of the Rebbe, Vol. 3, p. 33
 Talmud Yerushalmi, Shabbat 8:1; Kohelet Rabba 8:1
 Biurei HaZohar, Tzemach Tzedek, Vol. 1, p. 364 and on
 Torah Ohr, Lech Lecha 11b; Torat Chaim 81b and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5647 p. 103; Torat Chaim, Shmot Vol. 1, p. 102a and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5677 p. 27; 5682 p. 24
 Tikkunei Zohar 17a;
 Exodus 16:7-8
 Numbers 12:3
 Exodus 33:18
 Exodus 33:20-23
 Etz Chaim, Shaar 42, Ch. 13
 Psalms 104:24
 Zohar Vol. 1, p. 22a
 Genesis 1:26
 Maamari Admor HaEmtza’eee, VaYikra, Vol. 2, p. 813 and on
 Bereishit Rabba 1:4; VaYikra Rabba 36:4; Rashi & Ramban commentary to Genesis 1:1
 Lecha Dodi, Friday night prayers.
 Torat Kohanim and Rashi to Leviticus 1:9; Sifri and Rashi to Numbers 28:8
 Talmud Bavli, Brachot 35b
 Torat Chaim, Bereishit 7c and on
 Pardes Rimonim, Shaar 23, Ch. 20, “Ratzon“; Hemshech 5672, Vol. 1, p. 2 and on
 Psalms 5:13
 Psalms 89:3
 Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim 11d and on; Maamarei Admor HaEmtza’ee, Drushei Chatunah Vol. 1, p. 34 and on; Sefer HaMaamarim 5651 p. 172 and on
 Baruch SheAmar prayer
 Zohar Vol. 1, 86b
 Zohar Vol. 1, 15a
 Etz Chaim, beginning of Shaar HaKlallim
 In the first discourse of the series – “Yom Tov Shel Rosh HaShanah 5666″.
 Torah Ohr, Megillat Ester 90b and on; Sefer HaMaamarim 5648 p. 180; 5650 p. 329; 5679 p 665 and on; 5691 p. 95 and on;
 Etz Chaim, Shaar 8, Ch. 6
 Micah 7:18
 Tikkunei Zohar, Introduction 17a
 Likkutei Torah, Pekudei 6c; Hemshech 5672 Vol. 2 p. 1,080; 5679 p. 584 and on; 5693 p. 528 and on
 Likkutei Torah of the Arizal, Toldot 25:21; Tisa 34:7; Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaSelichot Ch. 8;
 Yotzer blessing.
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5665, p. 236 and on
 Rabbeinu Bachaye to Vayeshev 38:30; beginning of Balak, 24; Sefer HaChayim L’Achei HaMaHaRaL, Sefer Geula V’Yeshua, Ch. 2; Emek HaMelech Shaar 1, Ch. 1; Tanya Shaar HaYichud V’HaEmunah Ch. 7; Igeret HaKodesh, Epistle 20, p. 130b; Likkutei Torah, Balak 68c; Netzavim 44d
 Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar Rosh HaShanah Ch. 1; Likkutei Torah, Netzavim p. 51b
 Zichronot section of Musaf prayer on Rosh HaShanah
 Micah 7:18
 Yotzer blessing.
 Talmud Bavli, Shabbat 88a; Avoda Zarah 5a
 Genesis 2:4
 Shmot Rabba 48:1; Midrash Tanchuma Vayakhel 4
 Exodus 1:1
 Leviticus 27:34; Numbers 36:13
 Talmud Bavli, Shabbat 114a
 Mishnah Avot 5:1
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5631 Vol. 1, p. 4 and on; 5679, p. 40 and on; 5698, p. 82 and on
 Ohr HaTorah, Yitro, p. 951
 Me’orei Ohr, 40:30; Ohr HaTorah, Bereishit Vol. 2, p. 458a; Yitro, p. 955
 Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar Olam HaAsiyah, Ch. 3; Likkutei Torah Masei 89b; Sefer HaMaamarim 5632 Vol. 1, p. 149; Vol. 2, p. 375
 Jonah 1:8
 Metzudat David on the referenced verse
 Discourse entitled “And now Israel” in Maamarei Admor HaZaken 5562, footnote 1; Shaarei Teshuva of Admor HaEmtza’ee Vol. 1, p. 71a and on; Hanachot 5577 p. 292; Sefer HaMaamarim 5671, p. 171; 5679 p. 42
 Genesis 1:3 and on
 Mishnah Avot 5:1
 Bereishit Rabba 44:22; Yalkut Shimoni Lech Lecha 78; Rashi to Genesis 15:18; Talmud Bavli Shabbat 119b
 Zohar Vol. 3, p. 149b
 Talmud Bavli, Megilla 31a
 Mishnah Avot 1:3
 Psalm 86
 Psalm 86:2 – 86:1 in reverse order.
 Maamarei Admor HaZaken 5562, p. 264 and on
 Psalm 86:2
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5660 p. 53 and on; Meluket Vol. 4, p. 25, p. 36
 This next section is based on Likkutei Torah, Shir HaShirim p. 13a
 Song of Songs 1:10
 Genesis 27:22
 Psalms 87:1
 Psalms 25:10
 Etz Chaim, Shaar 3, Ch. 2; Pardes Rimonim Shaar 23, Ch. 10 “Yaakov”
 Exodus 26:28; Zohar Vol. 1, p. 1b; Vol. 2, p. 175c;
 Zohar Vol. 1, p. 22a; 155a; Vol. 3, p. 110a
 Torah Ohr, Miketz, p. 38c and on; 39b and on
 Zohar Vol. 3, p. 134a
 Psalms 109:22
 Talmud Bavli, Brachot 40a; Sefer HaMaamarim 5634 p. 302 and on
 Reishit Chochmah, Shaar HaKedusha Ch. 15; Shnei Luchot HaBrit, p. 82b; Tur Orach Chayim, Siman 61; Shulchan Aruch Admor HaZaken, Siman 65, 101:3; Sefer HaMaamarim 5659, p. 6.
 Deuteronomy 11:14
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5626 p. 169; p. 171; 5631 Vol. 1, p. 5
 Likkutei Torah of the Arizal, to Deut. 8:3; Torah Ohr, Noach 9d; Beshalach 65d; Likkutei Torah, Tzav, 13b; Emor, 38c; Matot 81b; Ekev 14a
 Deuteronomy 8:3
 Torah Ohr, VaYeshev 28a and on; Torat Chaim, VaYeshev 66b and on
 Torah Ohr, Hosafot to VaYechi 103a and on
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5663 Vol. 1, p. 56 and on; Vol. 2, p. 31 and on;
 Sefer HaMaamarim 5627 p. 291 and on; p. 289 and on; 5659 p. 162 and on
 Psalms 81:4
 Likkutei Torah, Drushim L’Rosh HaShanah 57d; Siddur Im DA”Ch 244b and on
 Pri Etz Chaim, Shaar HaLulav Ch. 3; Siddur Im DA”Ch 263c and on
 Mishnat Chassidim, Mesechet Shacharit D’Shabbat, 1:2; Pri Etz Chaim previously referenced, Ch. 19; Ohr HaTorah, Drushim L’Rosh HaShanah, Vol. 6, p. 2,489; Sefer HaMaamarim 5639 Vol. 2, p. 458; 5670 p. 201; Hemshech 5672 Vol. 1, p. 492;
 Discussed further in the next discourse.
 Likkutei Torah, Drushim L’Rosh HaShanahm, p. 57d