Now, it is written, “All who are called by My name and for My glory, I have created him, I have formed him, and I have even made him,” which refers to the souls of Israel. This is as translated by Targum Yonatan, “All of this is for your fathers etc.” The explanation of “All who are called by My name,” is that “called-Nikra” is a passive verb (Lashon Nifal), meaning that they are called and drawn forth “by My name.” This indicates that the aspect of “My name” is lower than he who is called out by the name from above. As known, “My name-Shmi” refers to the attribute of Malchut-kingship, and Israel transcends the aspect of “My name.” This is as stated, “Israel arose in thought,” or, “The thought of Israel arose first etc.”
Now, in its first source, the aspect of “My name-Shmi” refers to the aspect of Malchut-kingship of the Infinite Ain Sof as it is prior to the Tzimtzum-constriction. This refers to the aspect of “My name which is unified with Me,” and is like the dictum, “Prior to the creation of the world, there was Him and His name alone,” which refers to prior to the Tzimtzum-constriction. The aspect of “His name-Shmo” refers to the revelation of the Infinite Light of the Ain Sof. In relation to the Essence, it is the aspect of the light which relates to the worlds, and it is for this reason that it is called by the term “His name-Shmo.” For it similar and analogous to the name of a person, as is known. Now, just as the aspect of the Essence is simple with the ultimate simple unity, so likewise, the aspect of the revelation of the light of the Essence which is called the Infinite Light of the Ain Sof is also of the ultimate simplicity. This, then, is the meaning of “Him and His name alone.”
It is therefore understood that it was not possible for there to be the existence of the worlds directly from this level, except by means of the Tzimtzum-constriction and empty void (Makom Panuy), after which there was a drawing forth of a Kav-line, which is the aspect of a thin and constricted line. It too is drawn forth through various different “screens” (Parsa’ot), in order that there could be the existence of the world of Atzilut-Emanation, and the existence of the world of Briyah-creation etc, until finally the existence of the world of Asiyah-Action, as previously explained (in the discourse entitled “These are the generations of Noah”). Nevertheless, it is understood from all of this that the aspect of Malchut-kingship of the Infinite Ain Sof is the first source for the entirety of the chaining down of the worlds of Atzilut-Emanation, Briyah-Creation, Yetzirah-Formation, and Asiyah-Action. This is the meaning of the verse, “Your kingdom is the kingdom of all the worlds,” and the word “Your kingdom-Malchutcha” is in the present, referring to the aspect of Malchut-kingship of the Infinite Ain Sof. For as is known, it is the source for all the aspects of Malchut-kingship in each of the worlds.
It is regarding this that it states, “All who are called by My name,” for Israel is called by “My name” in that they draw forth additional lights in “My name.” This is because the souls of Israel are rooted in the very Essence itself, and they draw forth additional lights in “My name” through their “desires of the heart” (Re’uta D’Libah) and the fulfillment of the commandments. This is like the statement, “And they shall rest in it, those who sanctify My name,” i.e. they sanctify the name means that they draw forth the aspect of “You are holy” into the aspect of “Your name is holy.”
Now, this drawing forth which is “called out” and drawn forth into “My name,” is “for My glory” (Lichvodi), and it states, “There is no glory (Kavod) other than Torah.” For, it is the Torah which is the receptacle for the revelation of light. This accords with what is known regarding the matter of “Torah study is greater [than Mitzvot].” For although the arousal and drawing forth of light is accomplished by means of the fulfillment of the commandments, nonetheless, the general vessel for the light is the Torah. It is for this reason that it is called “My glory” specifically, for it is the aspect of the initial enclothement of the Essence of the Emanator etc.
This is also the meaning of, “I have created it, and I have formed it.” For, it is known that the difference between Creation-Briyah and Formation-Yetzirah is that Creation-Briyah is the aspect of the creation of new being from nothing to something (Yesh M’Ayin). In contrast, Formation-Yetzirah is merely the revelation of that which is concealed, like the formation and shaping [of something that already is], which is called something from something (Yesh M’Yesh). This is similar to the difference between thought and speech, wherein the letters of thought are novel creations, as prior to the thought of it, there were no tangible letters. It is only in thought that they come forth as novel letters. In contrast, in speech there is no novelty, but rather only the revelation of that which was concealed.
In the powers of the soul, this can be compared to the powers of Chochmah-Wisdom and Binah-Understanding. For, the flash of intuitive wisdom-Chochmah comes forth as a novelty, prior to which it did not have the existence of intellect at all in the power to conceptualize (Koach HaMaskil). It comes forth as a novel existence of intellect, as it states, “and Chochmah-Wisdom is found from Ayin-nothing,” i.e. from nothing to something. This is not the case with the power of Binah-Understanding which receives from Chochmah-Wisdom in a manner of something from something (Yesh-M’Yesh). For, the flash of wisdom includes the entirety [of the intellect] in a concealed manner, and that concealment merely comes to be revealed in Binah-understanding.
This is primary distinction between the written Torah and the oral Torah. For, the written Torah is the aspect of Chochmah-Wisdom which is drawn forth from the Essence of the Infinite Light, blessed be He, in a manner of something from nothing. The oral Torah, on the other hand, is the aspect of Binah-Understanding, which is solely the revelation of the aspect of the concealment of the written Torah, which comes to expound and explain the commandments of the written Torah. This, then, is the meaning of “I have created it, and I have formed it,” which refers to the written Torah and the oral Torah. Both of these are included in the meaning of “for My glory,” except that they are divided into two levels, the concealed and the revealed.
Now the explanation of [the continuation of the verse,] “I have even made it-Af Asee’teev,” is that it is through the actual fulfillment of the Mitzvot-commandments, one draws forth [the Infinite Light] into “My name and My glory.” Now it says, “Af Asee’teev– I have even made it,” where the word “Af-even” divides between the two matters, indicating that there is a wondrous difference between action-Asiyah even over and above the aspect of “Bara’teev-I have created it.” This is as stated, “Is it not better to hearken [to the commandments] than to bring a good sacrifice?” In other words, the primary intention is specifically the fulfillment of the commandments in actuality. For, although the sacrifices also draw forth the revelation of the Infinite Light, nevertheless, hearkening and fulfilling the commandments in actuality with the acceptance of the yoke of Heaven is better than a sacrifice. For it is through this that we draw forth the aspect of the essential will of the Essence of the Infinite, literally, and it is through this that additional light is drawn forth from the Essence itself into the Torah.
This then is the matter of “those who fulfill the will of the Omnipresent,” which is brought about through the fulfillment of the commandments with the acceptance of the Heavenly yoke. First there must be the aspect of “the desires of the heart” (Reuta De’Liba) which is due to the essential bond, and then subsequently through the fulfillment of the commandments with the acceptance of the Heavenly yoke, we draw fort the aspect of the Essential will of the inner Essence of the Infinite, through which we draw forth additional lights into the Torah.
We must now understand what was previously discussed regarding the matter of “Eden, no eye has seen it.” Eden is the aspect of the essential pleasure in the Essence of the Infinite, which completely transcends the aspect of the revealed pleasure of the Garden of Eden. For, even the most lofty souls such as the forefathers and Moses our teacher of blessed memory with their multitude of ascensions, nevertheless, none have them have beheld the aspect of the actual essential pleasure of Eden. Rather, this is specifically drawn forth in the performance of the commandments.
This is the meaning of the verse, “[I have seen an end to every beginning, but] your commandment is exceedingly broad.” That is, “to every beginning” which refers to the pleasure that is drawn forth to vest within the will of the creation of the world and the revelation of pleasure to the souls in the Garden of Eden, “I have seen an end,” and a limit. This is because it is merely the aspect of an ray and spreading forth of pleasure. However, “your commandment is exceedingly broad,” for it is in this specifically that there is a drawing forth of the aspect of the essential pleasure, as in the statement, “It brings a satisfaction of spirit before Me, that I commanded, and My will was fulfilled.”
Now, at first glance this is not understood. Since, the commandments are the aspect of the supernal desire, and desire and pleasure are seemingly two unified powers, and if it is the case that pleasure vests within desire then it cannot be the essential pleasure, for any enclothement of one power within another is merely the aspect of a spreading forth, and not as it is essentially. This being the case, even if we were to say that the pleasure vests within the desire for the commandments, this would merely be a spreading forth, and not the essential pleasure itself.
Moreover, it was previously explained that there is no reasoning for the will, which includes even the reasoning of pleasure. This being the case, what is the matter of “It brings a satisfaction of spirit before Me,” which indicates that there is indeed a reasoning of pleasure for the desire of the commandments?
In order to understanding this, we must preface with an explanation of the root of the matter of desire (Ratzon) and pleasure (Taanug), and the distinctions between them. For, we find to opposite matters in the difference between pleasure and desire. For, at first glance we can clearly observe with our senses that pleasure is the more internal aspect of the soul, and that there is nothing loftier than it. This is as stated, “There is nothing loftier than pleasure.” As such, the desire is merely the aspect of an external garment in relation to the pleasure. In other words, it is only a reflection of that which spreads forth from the power of pleasure. For as we can observe, anything that a person does not take pleasure in at all, he will not be aroused with desire for it or want that thing at all. In contrast, anything that he does take pleasure in, his desire will be turned to that thing and he will want it. Moreover, his desire will be commensurate to the power of the pleasure that he takes in that thing, whether the pleasure is in a deep and internal manner, or whether only externally. The leaning of his desire will subsequently be precisely commensurate, with either a lot of desire or little desire, internally or externally. For, generally speaking, one does not desire or want any particular thing unless he derives pleasure from it.
This is similar to the emotions that are derived from the intellect, which are not aroused within a person on their own, but rather only according to the grasp of the intellect. That is, when he grasps with his intellect that thing before him is good, then he will be roused with the emotion of love and desire for that thing, and if not, then he will not be aroused with love towards that thing. The same is true of the desire that transcends the emotions, which is the inner aspect of the emotions, it too comes from the intellect specifically, as is explained elsewhere. (This is the matter of how Tiferet of Imma becomes the Keter of Zeir Anpin, which is the desire and innerness of the emotions which is derived from the intellect.)
It is likewise this way with the desire that transcends the intellect, which is dependent upon pleasure, and is not roused except when he has a pleasure in the thing. It is for this reason that we observe that the desire is not constant, and that it is possible that at times he may not desire it. This proves that there is a more supernal power that causes the desire to come forth. It is explained elsewhere that the power that causes and moves the desire is the power of Da’at-knowledge. (This Da’at refers to the Avirah-[membrane of] air which is above the Mocha Stima’a-hidden brain, as explained elsewhere.) This is because Da’at is the power of concentration and connection, and through him connecting himself to the thing, he then has feeling for the thing, i.e. he arouses some interest and pleasure in the thing, through which he arouses a desire for that thing.
Now, we observe that the pleasure in this thing is concealed and hidden in the innerness of his soul, while the desire is what comes forth in revelation. It is like an external garment which is only like a reflection and expression of his pleasure and its revelation within this desire.
It is similarly this way in regards to the service of G-d with great love (Ahava Rabba), which is the aspect of the desire, wherein the soul is drawn with a desire to become unified and sublimated in Godliness. This comes about because of the sensitivity and feeling of the soul, that it senses the Infinite Light, due to which it is drawn to become included [in G-dliness]. This matter of feeling is that he feels the aspect of the transcendence and wondrousness of the Infinite Light, and how He transcends all the worlds, and the essential transcendence of how He is essentially transcendent. This too is a matter of feeling the pleasure in G-dliness (only that the pleasure is concealed, and the desire is what is revealed), and it is due to the sense of this pleasure specifically that he comes to the aspect of great love (Ahava Rabba).
According to the above, we therefore see that the pleasure is the internal aspect of desire (Chefetz), and the desire is the external aspect which garbs the pleasure. Therefore, it is possible for there to be pleasure without desire, like the pleasure in intellect or emotions that need not manifest in the arousal of a desire. Additionally, [the inverse is true as well, that] there can be no desire without it being preceded by pleasure.
Now, just as with regards to pleasure there are a myriad of levels one loftier than the next, so likewise with desire, and each level of desire is commensurate to the manner of the pleasure specifically. For instance, we observe with a particular pleasure that a person delights in a particular type of action, like the delight in beautiful objects, or a beautiful building, or beautiful artistry or in writing, or nice clothing, these are all lesser than the pleasure in speech which is more spiritual and ethereal. For instance, there is a much more significant pleasure in the delight in words of love with pleasure, or the words of speech of intellect and wisdom when he teaches his student and the like, than there is in the pleasure in action. In similar fashion, the pleasure of speech is lesser than the pleasure in thought, which is yet more spiritual. For instance, we can clearly observe that when one thinks about an intellectual matter and the matter is grasped by him in a strong way, he takes great pleasure in that thought, much more so than the pleasure in speech. In general, there is a much greater pleasure in the level of thought which is termed the “meditations of the heart” than there is in speech. Similarly, the pleasure in the emotions [is greater] relative to the pleasure of thought, and likewise, the pleasure in deep intellectual insight in the depth of the intellect [is greater] relative to the pleasure in the emotions, and so on and so forth until the pleasure of kingship and highness wherein the pleasure is the greatest of them all.